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Heni^g W. Sage 


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'llSmmmm mJ^^., , "erbartian principle 


3 1924 031 695 145 

Cornell University 

The original of tliis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

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Introduction to the 

Herbartian Principles 
of Teaching 



Day Training Department^ The Owens College, Mancliester 

' A race of real children ; not too wise, 
Too learned, or too good, . . . 
Simplicity in habit, truth in speech. 
Be these the daily strengtheners of their minds ; 
May books and Nature be their early joy. 
And knowledge rightly honoured with that name — 
Knowledge not purchased by the loss of power." 







butler & tanner, 

The Selwood printing works, 

frome, and london. 

Dedicated to 


J.G., M.T., R.B., E.B., 

U.H., M.R., 
E.H., E.A.H., AND C.B. 


" For two centuries Germany has been the classical land 
of pedagogy," says Compayrd ; if we admit this, it is not 
surprising to find the Germans ahead of us in educational 

In England, it has been the fashion to deprecate educa- 
tional theory, though it cannot be denied that our practical 
ability in the schoolroom bears a favourable comparison 
with the practical ability of teachers of other nations. 

Our educational text -books, in the past, have fre- 
quently been full of practical details, but lacking in guiding 

We are beginning to atone for our past neglect of 
educational theory, and to recognise that a study ot 
principles and ideals of education is of greater import- 
ance than a study of the external devices employed by 
the teacher to make the child acquire knowledge. " The 
subject taught is secondary to the manner of teaching," 
and the question for the teacher is not, " What does the 
child know ? " but, " What is his moral worth?" 

Ethics and psychology, and their bearing upon teaching, 
are receiving increased attention in our training courses 
for teachers ; it seems probable, therefore, that the writings 
of Herbart and his followers will be more studied in Eng- 
land than has been the case hitherto. Herbart believed 


that the scientific basis of education was to be found in 
ethics and psychology, and his system, which aims at de- 
veloping character, and at the same time at providing 
teachers with principles for selecting, arranging, connecting, 
and teaching the ordinary subjects of the schoolroom, is 
worthy of our attention. 

I have attempted in this little book to sketch simply and 
clearly some of Herbart's ideas on education, and to apply 
them to English primary schools. I have dedicated the 
book to the students, who helped me to work out the 
practical experiments in teaching herein described. 

My warmest thanks are due to Professor Rein, of Jena, 
not only for writing the Introduction to the book, but 
also for much personal help and kindness in directing my 
studies, and in enabling me to see the Herbartian Methods 
worked out in German Schools. I am indebted to Dr. 
Arthur Sedgwick for the translation of Dr. Rein's Intro- 


June, 1898. 



All teachers have a natural anxiety to establish a system 
of instruction such as will develop the powers and feel- 
ings of the mind. But they are often unable to see clearly 
what lines to adopt, in order to attain, in dealing with the 
young, the end which they somewhat imperfectly discern. 
They frequently rely on the influence of their own per- 
sonality, or on a certain traditional method, and neglect 
accordingly the proper organisation of their instruction. 
Personality, no doubt, is of the highest importance, if the 
teacher possesses the qualities necessary for true education. 
But even the best natural gifts can be still further de- 
veloped and improved by systematic reflection, and study 
of the theory of education and its value in practice. For 
this purpose books are a welcome aid, to lead the thought- 
ful teacher through the intricate detail of instruction, and, 
above all, to show him how mechanical methods can be 
avoided, and teaching take its true place in true education. 
The present work will undoubtedly render this service 
to English teachers. It introduces them to the problems 
of educational teaching, and supplies a potent stimulus to 
systematic thought on the best method of instruction, while 
it presents an independent estimate of the results attained 
by methodical work since the days of Comenius, Pestalozzi, 


and Herbart. It is possible that in many quarters this 
attempt may be regarded with a certain scepticism, and 
it may appear a bold and futile undertaking to transplant 
Herbartian theories to English soil j but in any case it is 
an interesting experiment, which cannot fail to lead to 
profitable results. The questions of curriculum and educa- 
tional method are so difficult that it is an advantage to 
study them from different sides. It will be clear that their 
solution, as attempted on Herbartian principles, deserves 
serious consideration, so far as it seems adapted to make 
the teaching in our schools really fruitful for the young. 
In any case, we must make up our minds to get rid of the 
assumption that the first object is to cram the learner's 
mind with the maximum amount of knowledge to be re- 
produced in examination. The higher aims must be clearly 
recognised, which are these : to awaken the activity of 
the faculties, to form the mental and moral judgment, 
and to give a genial warmth to instruction, which quickens 
into life the noblest growths of genuine human culture. 

We welcome the present work as a valuable aid to the 
thoughtful teacher, who is not content with mechanical 
routine, but is resolved to undertake and pursue his pro- 
fessional task in the spirit of an artist. We hope that 
the book may be warmly received by all who really care 
for the instruction and education of the young. 



May, 1898. 


Aim and General Principles of Education . . . i 


Interest, and its bearing upon Instruction . . -13 

Experience, Intercourse, and Instruction ... 25 

Selection of Material determined by the Culture 

Epochs 35 

Humanistic Studies S3 

Natural Science Studies 73 

Association of [^Studies and Importance of Thought 

Studies 87 

Concentration 103 


Concentration Schemes worked out . . . .111 


Method of Teaching. Theory of the Formal Steps . 123 

Lessons Worked Out according to this Theory . . 136 

Historic Sketch of the Growth of Herbart's Influ- 
ence IN Germany 183 

Bibliography i97 

" The letter killeth, the spirit giveth life."— St. Paul. 
" Obviously, the free enjoyment of life demands not only the 
noble, but also the pleasant, for happiness consists of these two."— 

"Dumb yearnings, hidden appetites, are ours ; 
And they must have their food. Our childhood sits, 
Our simple childhood, sits upon a throne 
That hath more power than all the elements." 

— Wordsworth. 
" Every philosopher of the present must go through Kant, and every 
pedagogue through Pestalozzi and Herbart." — Rein. 

" Pestalozzi, seized and developed by the philosophic thought of our 
times, must be studied in Herbart."— Mager. 

" The teacher . . . creates his own school. To him who hears 
the true artist's call to education, the small dull space in which he 
at first perhaps feels himself confined soon becomes so bright and 
large, that he discovers the whole of education therein, with all its 
motives and needs ; the satisfaction of which is truly a work im- 
measurable. " — Herbart. 

"The aim of education is, in truth, always an ideal aim, for it 
contemplates the completion of a man — the realisation in each man of 
what each has it in him to become. If a teacher has not an ideal aim, 
he had better take to shopkeeping at once ; he will there, doubtless, 
find an ideal within his capacity." — Laurie. 



The problems of education are more interesting 


ideaiin perhaps in the present day than at any other 


period in the world's history. The democratic 
ideal, which is a development of the Christian idea that all 
men are equal before God, demands that education should 
be the common inheritance of humanity. The old idea, 
that education is the exclusive possession of the rich 
and wellborn, has passed away, but with more generous 
ideals many new complications have arisen. 

When learning was an expensive luxury, people prized it 
because they paid for it, and because it was unobtainable 
by the majority. Now, it is as common as the air we 
breathe and the water we drink, and, moreover, no option 
is left to the parent, for the law compels him to send 
his child to school : but the prevalence of much sluggish 
indifference and ignorance concerning the need of school 
learning shows that the democratic Christian ideal is far 
from realization. 

In the exclusive days the problem of education was 
considered from an exclusive standpoint, and reformers like 
Locke and Rousseau took into account only the difficulty 
of dealing with one pupil. Their method was to shut up 
their solitary pupil, away from the contaminating influences 
of the world, to provide him with a tutor who was a marvel 



of discretion and wisdom, and to show how under these 
circumstances they might work out their ideal of education. 
pestaiozzis Pestalozz! sought to reform education on 
Problem, niore generous lines. He aimed at the re- 
generation of mankind. ,He lived for years among beggars, 
in order to learn "how to make beggars live like men." 
He dealt with the poor and outcast, and strove by means 
of education to give these neglected children self-respect ; 
and to raise them from moral degradation. 

Pestalozzi's problem is ours. We do not deal with an 
exclusive few, but with the thousands of children from 
the mean streets and dark alleys of our great cities, with 
the children from the factory-towns of the North of England 
and the mining districts of the South of Wales, with the 
children from scattered villages and from fishing hamlets. 
Many indirect influences are at work to cause the wealthy 
and middle classes to educate their children, but, now that 
education is a common inheritance, we must endeavour to 
arouse a deep and vital interest in knowledge for its own 
sake. We hear many murmurs of discontent. The people 
who pay rates grumble at the expense of our schools, the 
parents who are deprived of the fruits of their children's 
labour during their school-years grumble at the injustice of 
it, and those who expect the schools to work miracles in 
our midst grumble at the uselessness and folly of attempt- 
ing to educate everybody. We are told that our methods 
are mechanical, that the knowledge we wish to impart has 
no lasting influence on the children, who forget in one year 
what they have laboured to learn in six, and that blank 
ignorance is better than conceited incapacity. Some of 
these pessimistic accusations may be true. We are dealing 


with human children, human teachers, and human managers, 
under human conditions. Our means of education are often 
faulty and ill-considered, and the results are naturally im- 
Difflo itioB "^^^ difficulties are great. Large classes with 
of Present an insufficient staff of teachers are too common 


to need comment. Moreover, the time-table 
is becoming more crowded. Singing, drawing, manual 
training, painting, gymnastics, cooking, chemistry, jostle 
each other for places in the curriculum. How can the 
jaded teacher, battling with a large class and half a dozen 
subjects, find time and energy for thinking out methods ? 

It is a difficult matter ; yet the method must be also con- 
sidered. In the face of so much confusion, we need more 
urgently, than we ever needed before, a scientific guide to 
show us what to teach, and how to teach it. 

Before we discuss these points, however, we must con- 
sider why we educate children. 

The Aims of -^ study of somc of the educational systems 

Education, q£ jj^g pj^gj shows US that children have always 
been educated for what has been considered the most 
important affairs of life. 

The Greeks excelled in Art and War : hence their edu- 
cation was mainly physical. 

The Romans wished to produce Soldiers and Statesmen ; 
therefore Military exercises, the Twelve Tables of Roman 
law, and oratory were studied. 

The chief aim of education in the Middle Ages was to 
fit people for the life to come ; hence it was almost wholly 
religious in character. 

What is our educational aim now? We sometimes try 


to distinguish between Humanistic and Scientific education, 
and to say the aim of the former is to cultivate the mind, 
while the latter furthers utiUtarian ends. It is also custom- 
ary to speak of teaching certain subjects because they are 
said "to train the faculties." There are other aims of a 
lower nature. We educate children because we wish them 
to suceed in life, to pass examinations, to gain scholar- 
ships, or to hold their own with their fellows. These are 
the individual aims of individual parents, but every parent 
would readily admit that his chief aim with regard to his 
sons or daughters is their moral development. 

The State concerns itself with the education of its child- 
ren in order to further the welfare of the nation. Depravity 
and ignorance are dangerous to the community, while intel- 
ligence and virtue are helpful to it. If children are wisely 
taught, they may become intelligent and good men and 
women, and thus add to the honour and safety of the 

The general aim which inspires most of our reforming 
measures is usually a moral one, and, in spite of the 
many secondary aims which may be brought forward in 
answer to the question, " Why do we educate children ? " 
the broad, general answer upon which we all agree is, " In 
order to make them better human beings." This is com- 
prehensive and idealistic enough to begin with. 
id.»u.tic Aim Great educators from Plato downwards have 
of Education, gtrivcn after an ideal education. 

Pestalozzi's aim was idealistic ; he wished to regenerate 
mankind, and he set himself to win the hearts of his 
neglected little orphans, in order to appeal to their higher 
selves. Pestalozzi was a passionate reformer, with a great 


heart aglow with love and sympathy, and, like most other 
devoted enthusiasts, he did not trouble himself to base his 
educational plans upon a scientific theory. His wonderful 
intuition taught him what to do, and he did it. Pestalozzi 
inspired Herbart to formulate and attempt to solve some 
of the educational problems around him. 

Herbart based his educational theories upon ethics and 

psychology. He and his followers answer some of the 

questions which perplex us in the present day in connexion 

with our school difficulties. 

HerbarfBAim , Hcrbart lays down definitely at the outset 

ofEaucauon. jjjg^j jjjg Qjjg supreme aim of education is the 

development of moral character. He deduces this aim 
clearly and sharply from his system of ethics, which is 
based upon this principle of Kant — 

" There is nothing in the whole world, or indeed out 
of it, which can be taken without limitation as good, 
except the good will." 

Education must help to form this good will in the 
child, and Herbart shows us how all the activities of 
the school are to be devoted to this end. His aim is to 
make moral ideas the ruling forces in the lives of his 
pupils. These ideas are to sway the pupil completely, to 
penetrate into his disposition, to give him a right grip of 
life, and to determine his actions. 

The moral culture given in the school helps to form 
moral ideas in the child's mind, and these ideas influence 
the child's will and actions. 

" Instruction which makes for character " is one of the 
commonplaces among the followers of Herbart. This 
means that the highest aim of all instruction is ethical, 


inasmuch as its primary importance is in developing cha- 
racter. The teacher is to be guided, in choosing what 
the child shall learn, by the thoughts contained in the 
studies. Mere formal studies do not directly influence 
character— hence are of secondary importance. 

The subject-matter of all the studies is to be considered 
first, so that the child's mind may be filled with worthy 
and useful ideas. 

The self-activity of the child is to be satisfied and his 
interest awakened, so that he may work and think with 
love and delight. 

True instruction aims at giving the child studies with a 
worthy content, which arouse his interest and self activity. 

The ideas derived through instruction form in the child's 
mind what the Herbartians call the circle of thought. 

It is impossible in a little work of this kind 

General Frmclples ^ 

ofHertart'a tg enter completely into Herbart's principles. 


I shall merely try to show the practical bearing 
of three points. 

We have seen that with Herbart the aim of education 
is to develop moral character, and this is the outcome of 
his ethical conclusion. The three chief doctrines based 
upon his psychology show us how to reach this Aim : — 

1. How to choose subject-matter for instruction. 

2. How to connect it. 

3. How to present it to the children. 

I. Selection of Subject-Matter. This is guided by 
Interest and what the Herbartians call the Theory of 
the Culture Epochs. 

II. The Connexion of Studies. This is based upon the 
Theory of Concentration. 


III. The Method of Imparting Knowledge. This is 
based upon the Theory of the Five Formal Steps of 

I. Selection of Subject-matter. 

The child's interests, tastes^ and capacities are to be 
used as guides in selecting what to teach it. We are fairly 
familiar with this from Froebel's point of view, and we 
know how the gifts and occupations were devised to suit 
the natural instincts of the child. Herbart considers th« 
child from the culture-historic point of view. He says that 
the little child possesses the same circle of ideas as those 
of our remote ancestors, and that it passes through various 
stages of culture during its development from infancy to 
maturity. Hence the ideas which accord with the child's 
taste are likely to be found in the fairy tales which have 
been handed down from remote ages. Each school-year 
should correspond to a stage of development thro' which 
the human race has passed; therefore the material to be 
put before the child to study is to be taken from the stage 
of development in the world's history which corresponds 
to the child's circle of ideas. The theory of the Culture 
Epochs serves as a rough guide for the selection of 
material. The actual portions selected for school studies 
are chiefly chosen for their moral value, their beauty, or 
their usefulness. 

II. The Connexion of Studies. 

Froebel aimed at unity in the child's studies, and so 
should every thoughtful teacher. 

We all feel that waste of thought and energy result from 
isolating one subject of instruction from another, and many 
of us reahze the importance of associating the ideas gained 


in one subject with the related ideas gained in another. 
Most of us can recall our pleasure at discovering in our 
childhood such facts as that the river Nile of the story of 
Moses was identical with the river Nile in the map of 
Africa. It gave us the kind of intellectual joy we feel 
later when cosmos begins to shape itself out of the chaos 
of one's thoughts. 

Herbart based his theory of the concentration of studies 
upon psychological grounds. His followers — especially 
Prof. Rein— have made it one of the leading principles in 
their application of Herbartian methods. He associates it 
closely with the aim of education. 

It is the aim of concentration to closely associate related 
ideas, thereby securing that unity in the circle of thought 
which gives personal character stability and strength. 

The centre of this scheme of concentration is what the 
Herbartians call the "Gesinnungs-stofif" (material which 
develops character). This material is obviously the Hu- 
manities, History, Literature, and Art. 

III. The Method of Jmparti7ig Knowledge. 

Before we can attempt to teach anything to children, we 
must know how ideas grow in their minds. Herbart and 
his followers studied the mental processes by which chil- 
dren take in ideas, and, with these laws to guide them, 
they worked out the theory of the Five Formal Steps. 

We often talk of our particular methods of teaching, as 
though the mind could acquire knowledge in a dozen differ- 
ent ways and the teacher had the privilege of choosing 
in which way his pupil should get his ideas. There is 
only one true method, and that corresponds to the laws 
according to which the child's mind works. The old way 


was to make children learn formulas, definitions and rules, 
and repeat them by rote. They learnt words in this way, 
often mere words with no ideas attached to them, and to 
use words without understanding them is "an intellectual 
immorality." The only way in which children can acquire 
ideas is by following the universal law by which all dis- 
coverers have arrived at their conclusions. To proceed 
from particulars to the general, and back again to the par- 
ticular. The child studies individual cases and finally 
arrives at a general law j then he applies this general law 
to other cases. The theory of the Five Formal Steps is an 
expansion of this principle. 

Our schools ought to be among the most elevating and 
purifying influences of the country; and perhaps, when 
teachers clearly recognise what to teach, and how to teach 
it, so that the instruction shall influence in the right direc- 
tion the character of the children in our schools, the word 
education, which we now use loosely, will acquire a real 
and living meaning. 

Archdeacon Wilson, in his recent charge. May, 1898, 
expresses the different meaning education has for those 
who are interested in fostering it. " Part of the price we 
pay for democracy is, that a subject like education gets 
largely into the hands of people who have of necessity an 
extremely limited and erroneous idea of what it means. 
They think of education in terms of its instrumentahties, 
the buildings, apparatus, staff, qualifications of teachers, 
and the money they pay for it. That is something ; that is 
the knowledge of a clerk. Or, they may think of it as 
organization and discipline and results ; as the knowledge 
of so many rules of arithmetic, and of so many text-books 


on history, and geography, and grammar, and mechanics. 
That is something too ; it is the knowledge of an organizing 
master, a speciahst in his way. Or, they think of it as a 
proselytising and feeding organization in connection with 
their church or their chapel. That is the thought of a 

"But if education is thought of as the result in character ; 
in usefulness, inventiveness, resource; in good manners, 
straightforwardness, trustworthiness ; in self-control, rever- 
ence, piety ; then there are but few who connect cause and 
effect, or believe in any such connection as a guide to the 

The "result in character" is exactly what the Herbartians 
aim at. They recognise that the worth of an individual 
depends not upon his knowledge, but upon his power of 
willing rightly, and the school instruction is to them an 
important factor in training the child's will. 

"To be wearisome is the cardinal sin of instruction." — Herbart. 

" Whoever holds fast to knowledge, and seeks to extend it, is inter- 
ested in it." — Herbart. 

" The aim of instruction is not the production of a many-sided 
knowledge, but of a many-sided interest." — Rein. 

" When interest has been fully developed, it must always combine 
pleasure, facility and the satisfaction of a need. We see again that 
in all exertions, power and pleasure are secured to interest. It does 
not feel the burden of difficulties, but often seems to sport with them." 

— ZiLLER. 

" Interest means, in general, that species of mental activity which 
instruction must create, but which has no place in mere knowledge. 
For knowledge may be a store which a man may entirely dispense 
with, and yet be no other than before." — Herbart. 



Mr. Stelling's method of instructing Tom Tulliver was 
not successful if viewed in the hght of modem methods ; 
he failed absolutely in interesting his pupil. "You feel 
no interest in what you're doing, sir," Mr. Stelling would 
say, and the reproach was painfully true. Tom's trouble 
was, that he was not interested in the things Mr. Stelling 
wished him to be. He was not stupid, nor was he without 
interests. "He never found any difficulty in discerning 
a pointer from a setter, when once he had been told the 
distinction, and his perceptive powers were not at all de- 
ficient. . . . Tom could predict with accuracy what 
number of horses were cantering behind him, he could 
throw a stone right into the centre of a given ripple, he 
could guess to a fraction how many lengths of his stick it 
would take to reach across the playground, and could draw 
almost perfect squares on his slate without any measure- 
ment. But Mr. Stelling took no note of these things ; he 
only observed that Tom's faculties failed him before the 
abstractions hideously symbolised to him in the pages of 
the Eton Grammar, and that he was in a state bordering 
on idiocy with regard to the demonstration that two given 
triangles must be equal — though he could discern with great 
promptitude and certainty the fact that they were equal." 



Tom had plenty of interests, but Latin Grammar and 
Euclid were not among them, and as Mr. Stelling con- 
sidered these the " only basis of solid instruction," Tom 
fared badly. 

Perhaps in more modern times even Mr. Stelling would 

have learned that it is the business of the teacher to make the 

pupil interested in his work. It is a commonplace 

Learning mast . , , , , , 

be Made auiong US in these days, that the teacher must 

Interesting. ... ^ ^ . . . i 

make the acquisition of facts interesting, but there 
is nothing absolutely new under the sun, and we find Plato 
praising the Egyptians for their practice of teaching arith- 
metic by means of games, and Erasmus admiring the in- 
genuity of " the ancients," who he said " moulded tooth- 
some dainties in the form of letters, and thus, as it were, 
made children swallow the alphabet," and Quintilian re- 
commending teachers to teach the alphabet by means of 
letters in ivory which children take pleasure " in seeing, 
handling and naming," and Rabelais causing his pupil to 
play with cards after dinner and to learn "a thousand 
pretty tricks all grounded on arithmetic," and Locke ad- 
vising that the child should play with ivory balls on which 
were pasted the letters of the alphabet, and so learn them. 

It is true that it is easier to preach reforms than to 
practise them, and we might give instances of school- 
masters before Mr. Stelling, and perhaps even after, who 
ignored these gentler means of making the child love his 

A historian ^ records, " There is no other difference 
except that the rods in the fifteenth century are twice as 

' Monteil, Histoire des Franfais des divers itdts. 


long as those in the fourteenth.'' " Day and night,'' said 
an abbot to Saint Anselm, " we do not cease to chastise 
the children confided to our care, and they grow worse 
and worse " ; and later we find Montaigne complaining 
bitterly of the harshness of his schooldays. " Instead of 
tempting and alluring children to letters by apt and gentle 
ways, our pedants do in truth present nothing but rods, 
ferules, horrors, and cruelty. ... A pretty way this 
to tempt these tender and timorous souls to love their 
book, with a furious countenance and a rod in the hand." 
Fictitious "^^^ ^°"S reign of tyranny in the schoolroom 
Interest, jg ^^^ happily ovcr, few teachers dream of 
thrashing knowledge into children : the modern endea- 
vour is to make study easy and pleasant. Arouse the 
child's interest and he will learn without difficulty, is our 
maxim. Therefore teachers procure pictures and models, 
and invent devices, in order to sugar the facts, as it were, 
so that they may be swallowed without distaste on the part 
of the child. Again, it is common to cultivate a fictitious 
interest by bribing the children to acquire facts. We pro- 
mise rewards, prizes, scholarships and other distinctions, 
and the ambition of the pupil is aroused, which is strong 
enough to sustain his interest in his studies, in the hope of 
obtaining these honours for himself. This kind of interest 
is not true interest. To be interested means to love the 
subject and to pursue it for its own sake ; but we have got 
into the way of speaking of interest in connexion with 
teaching as though it were merely a means to an end, instead 
of an end in itself. 

The teacher considers interest a means ot 
helping the child to acquire facts, and, when 


that end is attained, he usually congratulates himself on the 
success of the means employed ; he trusts that the know- 
ledge may remain, though he knows the interest has fled. 
Herbart demands a higher kind of interest. He reverses 
the usual mode of looking at the matter and says, " The 
knowledge must serve to develop the interest. Learning 
may pass away, but the interest must remain throughout 
the whole life." 

The acquisition of facts is of less importance during the 
child's school-life, than the acquisition of interest in the 
world and in mankind. Therefore we cannot test educa- 
tion by the amount of knowledge a child has gained. The 
accuracy and amount of the facts which enable young 
people to pass examinations are not a true measurement of 
their powers. If we could calculate the vitality and variety 
of the interests which have come into a child's life by 
reason of his school instruction, we should be able to judge 
more truly of the value of his education. 

We want to train human beings, and to do this, it is more 
essential to give them right interests than to make them 
learn many facts out of books. 

This view by no means disparages the value 
depends upon of knowledge; for, after all, interest in a sub- 

Knowledge. • . • , , , , , , 

ject is largely a matter of knowledge properly 
related : if the mind contains ideas clearly arranged and 
logically connected on any given subject, this is a favour- 
able condition for the growth of interest in that subject. 
Tom Tulliver might have had more interest in his Latin 
Grammar if he had known " how there came to be such a 
thing as Latin on this earth ;" and that there had existed a 
people "who bought and sold sheep and oxen," who built 


walls and fortifications, and went to war with each other, 
through the medium of this language. His interest in 
Euclid might have been keener if he had understood that a 
man named Euclid had once used these perplexing problems 
for purposes of actual measurement. 

laiirect Herbart distinguishes between indirect and 

Interest. (jjrect interest. Indirect interest leads us to 
pursue some course not for its own sake, but in order to 
gain some advantage, e.g. a good place on the examina- 
tion-list, a prize, a scholarship, or an advantageous position 
in life. " Alas ! " says Goethe, " for that kind of activity 
which makes us impatient for the end, instead of rejoicing 
by the way." 

" The more indirect interest predominates," says Herbart, 
" the more it leads to one-sidedness if not egotism. The 
egotist is interested in things in so fair as they bring him 
an advantage or a disadvantage. The one-sided person 
has a tendency towards egotism — it may be partly uncon- 
scious—for he considers everything in its relation to the 
narrow circle in which he lives and thinks." 

Direct Direct interest works from pure motives : 

Interest.' ^^ pleasure which arises from disinterested 
devotion to the subject is reward enough in itself. 

The kind of interest Herbart demands must be direct, 
many-sided, and well-balanced. He distinguishes between 
many-sided and manifold; the latter he describes as a 
" dabbling in many things." The manifold interest may 
embrace many disconnected ideas, but the many-sided 
interest he compares to the sides of a triangle ; for those 
three sides are clearly distinguished from each other, yet 
they form one harmonious whole. 



It is impossible in this little work to give a complete 
idea of what the Herbartians mean by interest. To ex- 
plain it fully would mean a thorough discussion of many of 
Herbart's doctrines. To understand something of its 
importance we must consider Herbart's view of the mind 
and the ideas it contains. 

One of the favourite problems which philoso- 

Hertiarfs View '^ "^ 

of Mind, phers have been trying for centuries to explain 
is the connexion between mind and ideas. 

They usually begin with the mind and ask how it makes 
ideas. Herbart considers ideas and shows how they 
make the mind. 

He says concerning the mind, " It has no innate natural 
talents nor faculties whatever, either for the purpose of 
receiving or for the purpose of producing. It is therefore 
no tabula rasa in the sense that impressions foreign to 
itself may be made upon it ; moreover, in the sense in- 
dicated by Leibnitz, it is not a substance which includes 
in itself original activity. 

It has originally neither concepts, nor feelings, nor 
desires. It knows nothing of itself, and nothing of other 
things ; also in it lie no forms of perception and thought, 
no laws of willing and action, and not even a remote 
predisposition to any of these. 

The simple nature of the soul is totally unknown and 
forever remains so." * 
Ideas qnicuened Originally the mind seems of little account ; 

deve'iopTnto Jt knows nothing, wills nothing, and does 
willed Action, jjothj^g^ y^jji jjggg ^^g presented to it and 

' Herbart's Lehrbuch zur Psychologie, translated by M. K. Smith. 


then it becomes an active force. The mind has no power 
of itself to will and to act, for the activity of the will is 
dependent upon the mass of thoughts which make up the 
ideas and with these are intimately connected feelings and 
desires. Willed action, then, depends upon the ideas, 
but all ideas do not produce willed action. The ideas 
may be dull and lifeless ; they may only represent a 
dormant store of facts ; in this case they cannot give rise 
to activity of will. 

But the ideas may become vitalised by means of inter- 
est, and in this condition they become capable of willed 

We now see that ideas of goodness may develop into 
ethical conduct, if the interest is strong and abiding, 
inatniction and Instruction must aim at training the thoughts 

Interest. ^f jjjg child by means of interest, in order that 
they may be capable of willing, and of willing rightly. 
If the teacher cannot arouse this interest, he will not be 
able to make the school studies morally influence the 
mind of the child. 

Herbart divides interest into two great classes, each of 
which has three subdivisions. 

II. Empirical. 
2. Speculative. 
3. Esthetic. 

14. Sympathetic. 
5. Social. 
6. Religious. 

I. Empirical Interest This is the result of knowledge 
gained by experience and observation. The concrete 
illustrations, object lessons, Kindergarten work, etc, of 


our lower classes are aimed at the satisfaction of this 
interest. The Germans in their outdoor observations 
in garden, forest and meadow attempt to satisfy this 
interest very thoroughly. What we call the cultivation 
of the senses is merely satisfaction of the empirical inter- 
est. The young child's interest is largely empirical. 

2. Speculative Interest. When the child shows a desire 
to pass from mere observation of things to the investigation 
of causes, he exhibits speculative interest. We appeal 
to this interest when we require children to consider the 
reasons of things, and when we lead them to look beyond 
individual cases to generalisations, and to perceive the 
rational connexion between groups of facts or ideas. The 
speculative interest develops later than the empirical 

3. Esthetic Interest. This interest is stirred by a con- 
templation of the beautiful, the good, and the true. A 
noble action, a sunset flush, an exquisite flower, a beautiful 
poem or picture, arouses lofty emotions in us. 

All teachers have seen a child's eyes glow with pleasure 
when a fine action is related to him, or when he catches 
the music of a few lines of a beautiful poem. It is to 
gratify this interest that we endeavour to make the school- 
room beautiful with pictures, flowers, and artistic colours. 
I remember watching a number of little girls from the 
dark alleys of a big town walk past the teacher's- desk on 
their way out of school, and turn their eyes with pleasure 
to a blue jar of yellow daffoldils. The schoolroom was 
dingy, but this one bowl of flowers awakened the sesthetic 
interest in a hundred little breasts. 

4. The Sympathetic Interest is aroused by the sorrows 


and joys of others ; it was this feeling that Paul preached 
when he said, "Rejoice with them that rejoice, weep with 
them that weep" (Romans xii. 15). In the family life the 
child's feeling for mother, father, brothers and sisters, 
fosters this interest first. Later, in the Kindergarten and 
Infants' School, this feeling is encouraged. 

5. The Social Interest is the feeling of sympathy ex- 
tended beyond the family. In school the child must feel 
himself a part of a community, and must realise his respon- 
sibihties to others. "Pluck, endurance, fairness, good 
temper, and energy are the result of school games, the 
learning to give way to others, to be useful, unselfish, 
courteous, to be genial, to take the rough and tumble of 
the world as it comes — to bear the burdens of others, — the 
playing for your own side and not your own bat, the 
training in responsibility that comes from a position in the 
school." ^ All these are instances of the training of social 
interests which the school affords. 

6. The Religious Interest is not confined to the Scripture 
lessons and prayers in school. All the various duties and 
responsibilities of school life may foster this interest. 

" This spiritual education may come more or less from 
the chance intercourse of school life, from the conversations 
of friends, . . . from the life of those around."^ 

The child must become aware of his spiritual nature 
sooner or later. " There is in all of us that mysterious 
spiritual power that whispers to us in a voice we can 
scarcely hear amid the din and bustle of our daily life ; 

' Archdeacon Wilson. 

'^ Serin on to a Girls' School, Archdeacon Wilson. 


it is a voice that speaks to us not of this world and its 
struggles and prizes, but of a wholly different world— of 
heaven, of the ideal, of God." These are the essential and 
most vital interests which Life presents to us, and hence 
it is a complete recognition of the needs of the child's 
whole nature that Herbart demands of teachers when he 
insists on the importance of interest in his system of 
Education. " Interest," he says, " is an expression of our 
whole interest in the world and in humanity." 

" The child of six or seven may, without exaggeration, be said to 
come to school from home, the fields and the streets, with his mind 
full of the elements of every department of knowledge. He is already 
a walking miniature encyclopsedia. We are much mistaken if we think 
his mind is waiting for us before it begins to work. It is chockful of 

" The teacher's main business is to take the chaotic child-synthesis 
to pieces, make clear what is confused and build on the foundations 
thus laid. But the teacher never leaves behind him the ordinary ex- 
periences of child-life ; he simply interprets and extends them. It is 
daily life which gives material, and the school which gives interpreta- 
tion, direction and form. Life and the school should be in continual 
reciprocity — never disjoined." — Laurie, Institutes of Education. 

" Experience and intercourse are the two constant teachers of men." 
— Herbart. 

"From Nature man attains to knowledge through experience, and to 
sympathy through intercourse." — Herbart. 

' ' The parents' teaching is the kernel of wisdom, and the school- 
master's business is to make a husk over it." — Pestalozzi. 

"The proper study for man is his surroundings. So long as he 
knows himself only on the physical side, he must study himself 
through his relations to things, that is his childhood task ; when he 
begins to feel his moral being, he must study himself through his 
relations to men ; that is his life work. " — Rousseau. 




Formative INTEREST is the aim of all instruction. The 
child has to be interested in the world and 
in humanity. That is true education, but the instruc- 
tion he receives at school is only one factor in this edu- 
cation. There are other influences at work in forming 
ciiUd'B Early During the first years of his life, the little 
Eiperionces. ^.j^jj^j gjores up a vast number of ideas. Jean 
Paul Richter says that the child learns more in the first 
three years of his life than the young man during his 
three years at the University. The infant learns to dis- 
tinguish light from darkness, to recognise sounds, to dis- 
tinguish colours, it touches objects and discovers that they 
are hard, soft, rough or smooth : all these experiences are 
the result of the gratification of his empirical interest. Dr. 
Karl Lange says in his work on Apperception, " It is, in 
fact, astounding what a relatively immense crowd of ideas 
a human being gains in the first years. He gets acquainted 
with the thousand things of home, street, garden, field, 
wood, the wonders of the heavens, the manifold events 
of nature, the land and the people of the neighbourhood, 
and learns to call them by name ; he learns to use a great 
part of the vocabulary of his mother-tongue, and its most 
important forms of word and sentence, he learns to think 


in the vernacular." These ideas acquired in early life are 

some of the most important a human being possesses ; they 

are the strongest and most permanent. 

omw'B Early ^ut the child's observations upon the outer 

Intercourse, .^^qj-j^j ^j.g j^qj. gnough to develop his whole 

nature. They give him knowledge of external things, but 
they fail to touch his emotional nature. 

The child is a social being ; he is sensitive to expressions 
of affection. He soon learns to love and trust his mother, 
and later to extend this love and trust to other members 
of the family. " The intimate intercourse of the child with 
father, mother, brothers and sisters easily gives rise to the 
feelings of affection and to benevolence in its preliminary 
form directed toward particular persons only. The social 
intercourse with playmates and others of the same age gives 
rise to sympathy in sorrow and in joy, the feeling of justice 
and of fairness. The helplessness and need that make the 
child run continually to his parents, produce the feeling of 
dependence, of respect and reverence for authority." 

Herbart calls these two original sources of knowledge, 
Experience and Intercourse. Experience gives the child 
knowledge of the world he lives in, and Intercourse gives 
him ideas respecting his relations to mankind. 

These two influences. Experience and Intercourse, are at 
work long before the teacher steps in with definite instruc- 
tion, and they remain the " constant teachers " of mankind. 
These two influences are important factors in 

Experience and 

interconrse in- educatiou but they are insufficient. We cannot 


trust the child to them wholly. Experience 
and Intercourse only bring the child into contact with the 
elements of the real, and through these he sees things 
as they are, but education must not only classify and 


systematise these real things, but must show him also 

what ought to be — the ideal, therefore Instruction must step 

in, and present to him from the vast materials 

Instruction most . i i i* 

Supplement of the history of mankind, and the literary 


monuments man has left behind him, some 
of the noblest stories of human life and most elevated 
thoughts and beautiful fancies of men and women. 

Again, Experience and Intercourse are insufficient be- 
cause the natural surroundings of a child make up an 
exceedingly limited circle, and, if he depended solely upon 
his personal knowledge for all the ideas he possessed, he 
would become narrow-minded and one-sided. When a 
child has gained a clear notion of a river, having actually 
studied in detail the river nearest his own home, he can 
form an idea of what the Thames, the Ganges, or the 
Amazon, is like, through descriptions, pictures, and maps. 
A great deal of knowledge comes to us through the ex- 
periences of others, who have written accounts of what 
they have seen which we accept on their authority. 

If we relied upon personal intercourse for all the know- 
ledge of mankind, we should probably not fall so short as 
in the realm of Experience, for humanity is the same all 
the world over, and the feelings of our relations and friends 
are more or less like those of the whole of humanity ; but 
we want to extend our Intercourse into other ages and 
nations, and we must again depend upon the records of 
others to supply this knowledge. 

We admit the importance of Experience and 

Contact with 

the Keai Jntercourse in the education of an individual, 


for in order to obtain full, strong and clear 
ideas he must come into contact with the actual. He must 
see and handle real things, and learn to know and to have 


patience with real human beings. Thus, he derives real 
ideas from original sources. As Herbart says, "From 
Nature man attains to knowledge through experience, and 
to sympathy through intercourse." 

Work of Instruction is a third factor in education ; 

n« ruction, ^j^j^ j^ j^ ^j^^ hands of the teacher. The teacher 

comes before the young child in his earliest school year ; 
he knows that the mind of the child has been actively 
assimilating ideas for years, and he must consider what 
part he is to play in making use of these ideas. 

The teacher must examine the stores of ideas in the 
child's mind in order that he may — (i) Arrange it; (2) 
Correct it ; (3) Supplement it. 

The child has a wealth of ideas, but they 

(1) Arrangement. , , 

were acquired without system and without 
order. It is the part of the teacher to talk naturally and 
quietly to the child about the things which interest him. 
The child will readily respond, as the teacher stimulates 
him to collect his masses of ideas and to arrange them 
in an orderly fashion. 

The mental content of the child's mind, as Lange says, 
" consists of vivid ideas acquired during the most impres- 
sionable years of his life," and these ideas ought to stand 
in the closest relation to his later culture. 

It is for the teacher "to reach down with regulative hand 
into those quiet, private thoughts and feelings of the child 
in which lie his ego and his whole future, that they may 
rise above the threshold of consciousness and communi- 
cate understanding, clearness, warmth and life to instruc- 

The original ideas of the child, when arranged and put 


in order, are to form the foundation of the new knowledge 
which the teacher brings later. 

The child's ideas are often incorrect be- 

(2) Correction. 

cause he fixes his attention upon the most 
striking characteristics of an object and entirely disregards 
other details. Again, imagination plays a large part in 
a child's observations; he sees in many cases what he 
fancies he is going to see, and he is entirely convinced 
afterwards that he has seen it. Again, a child's ideas are 
so hazy and limited that he is often incapable of judging 
correctly of what he has seen. Hence the experiences of 
children require to be carefully examined and revised by 
the teacher. 

The child's ideas are often incomplete. 

(3) Completion. . , , , 

Lange points out that the very strength and 
vitality of a child's knowledge is a cause of its imperfection. 
The child is one-sided ; his range of vision is limited ; it 
only covers a few fields ; therefore, though his perceptions 
may be strong they are incomplete. "The gaps left by 
intercourse in the little sphere of feeling, and those left 
by experience in the large circle of knowledge, are almost 
equally great, and in the former as well as the latter, com- 
pletion by instruction must be welcome " (Herbart). 

Teachers are apt to magnify the influence ot 

Instmctlon . . .,.,,.._ 

only a Factor mstruction and to consider it the chief factor 

In EducatloUi 

in education. The child and the natural 
contents of his mind are overlooked, and instead of find- 
ing out what thoughts and ideas already exist in his 
mind, and correcting, arranging and adding to them, the 
teacher often endeavours to force upon the child a mass 
of uninteresting facts which have no connexion with the 


child's mental life, and hence are unintelligible and un- 
interesting to him. 

circle of Herbart points out that in every child there 
TiougM. gxists a circle of thought which he has acquired 
from Experience and from Intercourse. 

This circle of thought is to be extended by Instruction. 
This leads to a consideration of the subjects usually in- 
cluded in our school courses under the name of Instruction. 

Why do we teach Arithmetic, Grammar, Drawing, 
French, Chemistry ? 

Often the answer would be that these sub- 

suiJ°ect.°of jects are laid down in the Code, or are required 
in the examination. But even Codes and ex- 
aminations are supposed to be guided by some logical 
principle in their selection of subjects to be studied. 

Certain subjects are supposed to have value in the train- 
ing of the child's mental powers. Object-lessons are said 
to train the observing powers. History trains judgment. 
Arithmetic trains the powers of logical thinking. Literature 
refines the mind. Drawing trains the hand to skill and the 
eye to accuracy, and so on. Here we see that each subject 
is selected on account of some special virtue of its own, 
and a place is found for it on the school time-table. In 
this method of selecting studies there is a danger of over- 
crowding the time-table and of overburdening the child's 
mind by giving him an amount of superficial information 
on many topics, because each seems to have very special 
reasons for being included. The problem which all 
thoughtful teachers are trying to solve is not How many 
things can I teach the child ? but What kind of knowledge 
is worth most to the child ? 


Reiativa vaitto "^^^^ rcktive value of studies is beginning to 
of studios, exercise many teacher's minds. The discussion 
usually takes the form of a consideration of the merits of 
languages and science. 

Mr. Herbert Spencer considers the question 

Spencer's View. . „ j . -.- . 

m his essay on Education. He reasons that 
it is well to give the child the knowledge that will help 
him to keep healthy, to make a living and to do his duty 
to his family and the State. Scientific Knowledge pro- 
motes these ends — therefore Scientific Knowledge is of 
most value in education : this is his conclusion. He would 
admit Art, Music and Literature, if time permitted, to fill 
up the leisure portions of life pleasantly. He considers 
what is useful to be of chief importance, and would devote 
the school activities to utilitarian ends. 

The Herbartians consider the whole nature of the child, 
particularly emphasizing the moral development. 
„„,_,. The child's circle of thought is formed by Ex- 

The Hebartlan ° ■' 

^'™' perience which he gains from his environment, 
and Intercourse which he gains from his human relations. 
" Experience refers to the domain of Nature ; Intercourse 
to that of human life." Instruction comes in to broaden 
and enlarge both these sources of mental life. Instruction, 
therefore, follows two chief lines. It enlarges actual human 
intercourse by means of an ideal intercourse " with men 
and women in poetry, history and literature. It widens 
the child's experience of Nature by leading him to observe, 
to collect and to experiment. 


Prof. Rein, in his Outlines of Pedagogics, gives the fol- 
lowing lucid summary : 

The Circle of Thought. 

Experience. Intercourse. 

Things of the Environment. Men of the Environment. 

Nature. Life. 

I I 

Knowledge. Sympathy. 

I I 

Broadening of Experienee. Broadening of Intercourse. 

Natural Sciences. Historical branches. 

Realistic direction. Humanistic direction. 


These two directions fuse in the general education 
furnished in the schools. All the subjects to be studied 
belong to either of these two groups which direct the 
instruction to be given. 

Prof. Rein and his school consider the 
preloSSlte. Humanistic group the more important, because 
these studies deal with life, develop sympathy, 
and are calculated to directly help on the aim of education, 
the building up of moral character. " This conclusion," he 
says, "is by no means intended to express an undervalua- 
tion of any of the single subjects, but it aims at a correct 
proportionment of the amount which they may contribute 
to the formation of the youthful mind and character." 

We are now in a position to sketch a general plan of the 
Instruction which is to supplement Intercourse and Ex- 


"An analysis of the elements of culture shows us that 
the work of mankind is directed on the one hand to the 
ideal sphere — i,e, to religion, mental studies and art— on 
the other hand to the investigation of nature. Accordingly 
these two large groups of material may be summed up 
under the phrases— life of nature and life of mankind." ^ 



Life of Mankind. 




Life of Nature. 
Natural Science-Studies. 



, Mathema- 






.. Geometry 

;. Arithmetic 


and Play, 

[. Physical 

Dr. Rein, Outlines o-f Pedagogics, 


" Let us now praise famous men, and our fathers that begat us." — 

" The History of the World is but the Biography of great men."— 

" It is not of so much importance to know where Marcellus died, as 
why it was unwortliy of his duty that he died there." — Montaigne. 

" Historical characters must seem to children real living beings 
whom they love or hate, whom they despise or esteem." — GuizOT. 

"Neither book nor any product of human skill, but life itself yields 
the basis for all education." — Pestalozzi. 

' ' Where truth in closest words shall fail, 
When truth embodied in a tale 
Shall enter in at lowly doors." — Tennyson. 

" The worth of man depends not upon his knowledge but upon 
his will." — Here ART. 

"The development of soul, little else is worth study." — Browning. 

"If there be an order in which the human race has mastered its 
various kinds of knowledge, there will arise in every child an aptitude 
to acquire these kinds of knowledge in the same order." — Spencer. 

"Although the world in general advances, the youth must always 
start from the beginning, and as an individual traverse the epochs of 
the world's culture." — Goethe. 




History Teaching ^HE teaching of History in England, at any 

in England, j.g^jg jj^ jj^g primary schools, is on a low level. 
History is still an optional subject, and the statistics in 
the Blue Books for 1896 show that less than one-sixth of 
the schools throughout the country attempt to teach it as 
a class-subject. 

It is curious that in a country where the right of voting 
is almost universal for men, we make no attempt to 
enhance the value of the vote by giving the voter an in- 
telligent knowledge of the past history of his own country. 

Mr. Herbert Spencer considers that history ought to 
" illustrate the right principles of political action,'' but he 
complains that our school histories fail in this purpose. 
" Read them, if you like, for amusement," he says, " but 
do not flatter yourself they are instructive.'' 
HMory Teaching ^^ the primary schools in France, History 

in France, jg ^ subject which rcccives much attention. 
All the children who pass through them receive a clear 
outline of the history of their own country in its relation 
to other countries, as well as a few sketches of the striking 
events of Grecian and Roman History, and some general 
account of Eastern civilizations. In the German schools, 
particularly in those professing Herbartian principles, the 
value of History is fully recognised. 

To the Herbartians, History is pre-eminent among the 
school studies. History taken in its broadest sense in- 


eludes all the studies contained in the Human- 

Innuence o 

Mo!dSng '^'^'^ group, and it is placed first in the scheme 
Character, ^f instruction, bccausc it is considered of 
primary importance in moulding the character and in 
stimulating interest. 

History records the deeds of human beings, their aspira- 
tions, motives, actions, triumphs and failures ; it shows 
the relations of individuals to each other, to society, and 
to the State. The noblest thoughts of human beings are 
stored up in Literature, and man's sense of beauty finds 
expression in Art, in Music and in Architecture. 

We cannot be interested in things unless 

The Present ° 

depends upon vve Understand them, and we cannot understand 

the Paat. ^ ' 

things as they are, unless we know how they 
came to be so ; therefore we must study the past in order 
to comprehend the present. This comprehension will 
help us to realize modern civilization, and to face our 
responsibilities as intelligently as possible. It always 
costs more trouble to do things intelligently than to 
follow an unintelligent routine, and in the teaching of 
History, as in other affairs of life, it is easier to follow 
beaten tracks than to find out the best. 

Worthier History teaching often becomes mere lists 
Teichtoe. °^ '^^'^^ ^^^ ^'■^^'■y outlines. These have no 
influence upon the child's life; they do not 
put before him ideals of conduct and help to form his 
character. Certainly, a knowledge of dates and accurate 
information concerning the names of all the leaders in a 
battle and the exact terms of treaties help children to 
pass examinations, and the school to procure satisfactory 
Government grants. These temporal benefits pass away. 


however, and leave the child very much as they found 
him; but true History teaching may powerfully influence 
his whole life, and every one must admit that it is not 
v/hat a child knows, but what he becomes that is of chief 

Bishop Butler recoa;nized this when, in a 
™°'« sermon preached more than one hundred and 


than fifty years ago on behalf of London Charity 

Information. . . 

Schools, he said: "Of education, information 
itself is really the least part." 

Our modern examination system seems to point to a 
contrary opinion being held, but its chief raison d'itre is 
that it is easy to work, for information is readily tested, 
while the qualities which make up character are not. 

Montaigne regarded history as a means of moral training, 
and Locke held that "as nothing teaches, so nothing de- 
lights more than history." 
Dr Arnold's ■'"'''• Amold placed a high value on the use of 
View. History in education, and Mathew Arnold pays 
a tribute to his father's life and teaching. 

' ' And through thee, I believe 
In the noble and great who are gone.'' 

True History teaching should place before all the child- 
ren in the country some of these noble and great men, and 
so help to raise them to a higher moral level. 

More than fifty years ago Dr. Arnold sketched a scheme 
for the teaching of History. It is so much in accord with 
the Herbartian method that I mention it here. 

He would have young children taught through 

Use of Pictures . ^ r 1 -r^-i i ,- -r> 

in Teaching picturcs taken from the Bible, from Roman, 


Grecian and English History; these pictures 


to form the text of graphic and simple stories. Any one 
who has watched the eager interest of young children over 
pictures and their stories will realize how much can be done 
for them in this way. Recently I have been observing 
two bright twin-boys of six years. Every morning as soon 
as it was light they came to my room with two great 
volumes of Shakespeare, and asked for the stories of Csesar, 
Shylock, Ariel, and Macbeth from the pictures. The 
Shakespeare stories and Robinson Crusoe form their world 
of romance at present. 

Dr. Arnold would give the boys of the middle forms of 
a school vivid and lively sketches from the histories of 
Greece, Rome and England. He says that the main pur- 
pose of these studies is to excite interest and to stimulate 
a desire for further knowledge. In the upper forms he 
requires that the boys should study some first-rate historian. 

The Herbartians in working out their scheme for History 
teaching seem to agree in sentiment with Bishop Butler, 
Montaigne, and Locke, and in practice with Dr. Arnold. 

Stories from English History predominate too 


ofEngiiJh completely m the Historical reading books 
used in English schools. In the primary schools, 
especially, no attempt is made to enlighten the children 
as to the history of any other nation but their own, except 
that of the Jews ; and Bible teaching is given under special 
conditions without relation to any other subject. 

The responsibility of selecting suitable historical narra- 
tive for children which lies upon the teacher is great. A 
whole world of history lies behind us and the child is heir 
to it. The Herbartians are guided by the following con- 
siderations in their choice : — 

Firstly, the selected matter must suit the 

CllUd'«TMt«. . 

child s taste and capacity, for the mind takes in 
nothing that does not suit it, and true interest is awakened 
only when an appetite is created. 

Secondly, the narrative should present some 

Ethical Value. . . 

inspiring example, or contain some ethical 
truth. It was Butler who defined History as " philosophy 
teaching by examples," and the Herbartians would make 
History teaching a series of Object-lessons in Morals. 

In considering the comparative suitability of the histories 
of Jack the Giant Killer, the Black Prince, and Mr. Glad- 
stone, for a child of five years of age, nobody but a Grad- 
grind would hesitate in choosing the first. 

Jack, as a hero, accords most with the child's 

The Remote is •* 

Attractive to taste and understanding, because Jack belongs 
to the same stage of culture as the child. A 
slight experience of children soon teaches us that they are 
psychically nearer to remote ages than the present : there- 
fore, we do not attempt to put complicated problems of 
modern life before the young child. We know that the 
present rests upon the past, and only by a knowledge of 
the past does the present become intelligible. 

This study of the history of the past does not 

Child's Environ- , , ., , . , . , . 

ment helps in prevent the child from studying his environ- 

Teaching History. ^^. _. , , , .^ , 

ment. The policeman, the postman, the Lord 
Mayor's Show, the Queen's birthday, a regiment of soldiers, 
are familiar sights in the child's life. These may be taken 
as object-lessons, and the child will gain some idea of civic 
authorities, the State and its defenders, long before it is pre- 
pared to study these matters at all thoroughly. The child 
is interested in his environment : therefore he must receive 


simple explanations of it. It is, however, a mistake to 
confine the child exclusively to his environment, and to 
refuse to gratify his natural tastes with stories of earlier 
ages. " I don't want my children to know what a party of 
tomfools in steel coats did a thousand years ago," said an 
eminent statesman, " but I do want them to know the 
clauses in the last Beer Bill — that is practical knowledge." 
So he substituted Parliamentary Documents for Histories 
in his nursery and schoolroom. He valued facts and 
ignored the ethical value of History. As Carlyle tells us, 
"Great men taken up in any way are profitable com- 
pany. We cannot look, however imperfectly, upon a 
great man without gaining something by him. He is the 
living light fountain, which it is good and pleasant to 
be near." 

Kote Learni-g, ^e are recognizing more clearly every year 
iTpM^g *^^* ^^^^ learning is of little value in forming 
stories. character or in developing intelligence. " Don't 
you hate river-basins ? " said . a bright little girl to her 
aunt the other day. She was learning by heart long lists 
of river-basins, and she had never been made to observe a 
real one; hence she hated river-basins, just as children 
who are required to learn by heart collects, psalms and 
chapters of the Bible as Sunday tasks, hate them. If 
striking human examples of goodness, courage, truth 
and falsehood from the pages of the Bible or profane 
history are put before children, they form their own 
moral judgments very readily and often with surprising 

Some of the finest examples of teaching are to be found 
in the Gospels. The attention of the common people was 


arrested, and their moral judgment appealed to in the 

' ' For Wisdom dealt with mortal powers, 
Where truth in closest words shall fail, 
When truth embodied in a tale 
Shall enter in at lowly doors." 

The Herbartians hold that the child's mental 

The OhUd'B . . , . . 

Devoiopmeiit development is an epitome of the evolution of 

an Epitome of . . . 

thatofonr humanity. The child's mind develops rapidly 


and he passes through a series of epochs in 
his transition from infancy to maturity, in each of which 
he has different needs, interests and powers of com- 
prehension. These epochs correspond roughly to those 
which the race has passed through in its development 
from barbarism to civilization. " If, therefore, one would 
appeal to the understanding of the child, or touch the 
springs of his intellect, or pourtray to him ethical rela- 
tions capable of claiming his attention, one should be 
mindful of these epochs." 

Dr. Rein in his Outlines oj Pedagogics points out that 
"this idea of the analogy between individual and general 
development of humanity is a common possession of the 
best intellects. He quotes a number of authorities in 
support of this theory. 

Mr. Herbert Spencer lays down as one ol 

Spencer's View. 

the guiding principles of instruction that " the 
education of the child must accord both in mode and 
arrangement with the education of mankind considered 
historically, in other words the genesis of knowledge in 
the individual must follow the same course as the genesis 
of knowledge in the race.'' 


The theory of the Culture Epochs is sug- 
ouiture°Epo° hs a gestive, and in a general way guides many 

Guide in Select- , , , ,. .... i • , i • 

ing Humanistic teachers, half unconsciously it may be, in their 
selection of suitable subject-matter for children; 
but the Herbartians go further, and define the successive 
stages as the Primitive, the Hunting, the Pastoral and 
so on. Ziller, who was one of the chief expounders of 
Herbart's doctrines, expresses himself clearly and confi- 
dently on this theory. He says: "The mental development 
of the child corresponds in general to the chief phases in 
the development of the people or of mankind. The mind- 
development of the child, therefore, cannot be better 
furthered than when he receives his mental nourishment 
from the general development of culture as it is laid down 
in literature and history. Every pupil should accordingly 
pass successively through each of the chief epochs of the 
general mental development of mankind suitable to his 
stage of advancement " ; therefore the material of instruc- 
tion " should be drawn from the thought material of that 
stage of historical development in culture which runs 
parallel with the present mental state of the pupil." The 
Herbartians consider that History is real character-forming 
material, and place it as the centre of all the subjects to be 
studied ; the other subjects group themselves around it and 
are in some measure subordinated to it. 

For each school-year is chosen a complete " section of 
Humanistic material." These sections are arranged in pro- 
gressive chronological order from the older and simpler 
stages of mankind to the newer and more complex. 

Herbartian seioc- Ziller and Rein have chosen periods of 

tion of Human- 

iatic Material, history which are intended to correspond to the 


various stages of culture in the child during the eight years 
of his school life — from the age of six to that of fourteen. 

The history of the Jewish nation and the rise of Chris- 
tianity are in Herbartian schools studied historically side 
by side with secular history. The following is a specimen 
sketch of the historical material, from Biblical and general 
sources, which forms the core of instruction in such a 



1st year. 

Standard Fairy Tales. 

2nd ,, 

Robinson Crusoe. 

3rd „ 

Patriarchs: Abraham, 

Thuringian Sagas. Stories from 

Joseph, Moses. 

the Trojan War and the Wander- 
ings of Ulysses. 

4th „ 

Judges in Israel. 

Nibehmgen Lay, Siegfried and 
Gundrun Sagas. 

Stli .. 

Kings in Israel : Saul, 

Charlemagne, Otto the Great, 

David, Solomon. 


6th „ 

Life of Jesus. 

Crusades, Attila, Barbarossa, 
Rudolph of Habsburg. 

7th „ 

History of the 

Discovery of America, the Refor- 


mation and Luther, Thirty Years' 
Frederick the Great, Napoleon, 

8th „ 

History of the Refor- 

mat ion, Church 

William I., Present time. 


This Humanistic material forms the centre around which 
all the other school subjects are grouped. History is the 
backbone, as it were, of the entire instruction. 

A Herbartian Time-Table, which gives an outline of the 
other subjects studied in connexion with this character- 
forming material, will be found in a later chapter. 

These subjects, Bible and History teaching, receive the 
Bible and HiBtory lion's share of the school time. A lesson is 

Teaching, generally given in each four times a week. 


They are the subjects which receive the best attention of 
the most skilled teachers in the school. A stranger who 
wishes to hear some of the school teaching is invariably 
asked to attend the Bible and History lessons. Some of 
the best Scripture lessons I have ever listened to were 
given in Herbartian schools. It will be noticed that in the 
first and second school years there is no definite Bible 
teaching. It is believed that the child is not yet in the 
stage of culture capable of duly appreciating it. The child 
is in the myth-making age, and its tastes must be gratified 
by fairy tales and stories of the struggles of primitive man. 
But Bible teaching is not wholly neglected in the lower 
classes. The school life is closely associated with the 
home life and the Church life. The Church festivals — 
Christmas, Easter and Whitsuntide — are very carefully 
observed. The children learn suitable hymns, and hear 
stories of the chief events in the life of Christ in connexion 
with these festivals. But the definite systematic instruc- 
tion is reserved until the child is of an age to begin to 
appreciate it. 

The following is a scheme of Historical material suitable 
for a Primary School in England : — 

Infant School. 
Children of Four Years. 
Nursery Rhymes : Cock Robin, Mother Goose, Queen of Hearts, 

Fairy Tales : Sleeping Beauty, Three Bears, Jack the Giant Killer, 
Ugly Duckling, etc. 

Children oj Five Years. 
Selections from Grimm's and Andersen's Fairy Tales. 

Children of Six Years. 
Greek Stories : Jason and the Fleece, The Dragon's Teeth, Pegasus, 
Paris and the Apple, Helen of Troy, Wanderings of Ulysses. 


Standard I. 
Robinson Crusoe. 

Standard II. 

Early British Legends, Giants and Dwarfs, Gods Tlior and Loke, 
Idvvyn and the Apples of Youth, Beowulf, Folklore of Neighbour- 
hood and English, Welsh, Manx, Scottish, and Irish legends, e.g. 
Lancashire Witches, Story of King Orry and Manx Fairies, St. 
George and the Dragon, King Lear and His Daughters, Stories of 
St. Patrick, of St. Columba, of Macbeth. 

These stories would be selected according to the legends of the 

Standard III. 

Romulus and Remus, Rome, Horatius, Julius Ctesar, The Romans 
in Britain, The Druids, Boadicea, Legend of St. Albans, The 
Saxons, Bede, Caedmon, of King Arthur and Merlin. 

Standard IV. 

Alfred the Great, Stories from Alfred, Otter the Merchant, The 
Finns, Whale and Seal Hunting, Agil the Hunter, England in Alfred's 

Northmen : Danes and Warships, King Guthrum the Sea-King, 
King Eric and the Poet Egil, Sweyn, Canute, Alaric the Goth, Fall 
of Rome, Attila, Charlemagne. 

Standard V. 
The Normans, Battle of Hastings, Hereward, Thomas Becket, 
Peter the Hermit and the Crusades, Richard I., King John and 
the Great Charter, Robin Hood, Simon of Montfort, Conquest of 
Wales, Bruce, The Hundred Years' War, Wars of the Roses. 

Standard VI. 
The Renaissance, The Discovery of America, The Reformation, 
The Spanish Armada, Great Men of the EUzabethan Age, Thirty 
Years' War, Civil Wars of Charles I., The Commonwealth, The 
Restoration, William of Orange. 

Standard VII. 
Walpole, The Pelham Ministry, Pitt and the Seven Years' War, 
The American War, Warren Hastings, French Revolution, Napoleon 
Bonaparte, Struggle with Napoleon, Nelson, Wellington, The Reform 
Bill, Abolition of Slavery, Factory Acts, Queen Victoria, Free Trade 
and the Crimean War, Indian Mutiny, The Gladstone and Disraeli 
Ministries, Colonial Expansion, Agricultural Improvements, Inventions. 


Among the books useful for the children in such a series are : — 

Harold, the Last of the Saxon 
Kings, Bulwer-Lytton. 

Lays of Ancient Rome, Macaulay. 

Lives of the Greeks and Romans, 
Plutarch (translated). 

Wonder Book, Nathaniel Haw- 

Robinson Crusoe, Defoe. 

Fairy Tales, Andersen. 

Westward Ho I Kingsley. 

English History from Contem- 
porary Writers. (A Series.) 
Edited by Prof. York Powell. 

Old Greek Stories, Hanson. 
Stories of King Arthur, Hanson. 
The Heroes, Kingsley. 
Tanglewood Tales, Nathaniel 

Heroes of Asgard, A. and E. 

Old English Stories from British 

History, York Powell. 
Stories of Charlemagne, Hanson. 
Chaucer Stories, Seyoiour. 
Coltimbus, Washington Irving. 
The French Revolution, Gardiner. 
Hereward the Wake, Kingsley. 

This scheme is graduated according to the 

The CMM In a a 

thoMyth- Culture Epochs. In the early years the child 

making Stage. _ ^ '' ^ 

lives in a realm of fancy, and its imagination 
is developed by the epic fairy tales of the world. There 
are stern teachers who would forbid all fanciful stories and 
confine the little ones to pure facts. They urge that the 
child has to live in a real world, and it cannot begin too 
early to learn real things. The pity is that thousands of 
little ones are too early 

"Called from faery land to wander in dark ways." 
The transition from the Greek stories to Robinsott Crusoe 
is discussed in another chapter. 

Native Legends ^'^ ^'S^'^ y^^rs of agc, when Standard II. is 
indfoiidofe. reached, the child comes nearer home. The 
early beliefs of our Saxon forefathers, with their gods and 
their giants, are discussed, and the legends of their own 
county or district. Scotland, Ireland, Wales, and various 
parts of England would furnish various legends. In the 
Isle of Man the stories of King Orry would prove attrac- 
tive. Local folklore should always be used at this stage. 


Its Romans ^'^ Standard III. the child ought to begin to 
and Batons, appreciate historic truth ; but early history is 
mixed with myth and legend. Tlie story of the twins, 
one of whom afterwards built the city of Rome, and one 
or two striking stories of Roman History will form an 
introduction to the study of British History. The Romans 
in Britain can be picturesquely brought before the children 
in a few vivid pictures of the people and the life. 

Arthnrian The coming of the Saxons and the introduc- 

storieB. J.JQJJ ^£ Christianity. Stories of C^dmon and 

the stories of King Arthur are all to be woven into an 

English child's mind before he can grasp clearly the idea 

of the English nation. 

In Standard IV. we attempt to put stories 

of real historic truth before the child, and to 

present the beliefs of the people of the times. Alfred the 

Great is a heroic figure; he always fires the imagination 

and reverence of the English child, if he is well presented. 

The stories of the cakes, of his measurement of time by 
candles, of his learning to read, are the common property 
of almost every child, however ignorant he may be of other 
facts of his nation's history. 

The stories of Otter the merchant, of Agil the Hunter, 
and some geographical items of whale-hunting, are trans- 
lated by Mr. York Powell for children, and prove very 

1^3 Then the Northman with his warships, and 

Hortimein. ^-^^ j^^j^ Danish sea-kings come within the 

child's horizon. Again Mr. York Powell furnishes us with 

stories of the ships and of King Guthrum. The Danish 

kings who ruled in England are also to be considered. 


A few stories showing what the rest of the world was 
doing while these striking events were happening in 
Britain enlarge the child's understanding and lead him to 
seek for further stories of his heroes for himself. 

Alaric the Goth is an imposing person, and 

Alarlc, Attlla, , „ „ _ ^ . i . i 

andoharie- the Fall of Rome a tragic event which never 
fails to fascinate children, and, if we have time 
to give heroes of other nations to contrast and compare 
with our own Alfred, Attila and Charlemagne are suffi- 
ciently striking and worthy. 

These glowing pictures from the history of nations often 
give the child a real interest in the subject. This is the 

storioaof foundation. The three school years which 
Britain. remain can be employed in giving in bold out- 
line the striking events which tended to mould the destinies 
of the British nation up to the present time. These events 
are closely associated with other countries in Europe. The 
Crusaders boldly going forth to wrest the tomb oi Christ 
from the Turks ; the impetus given to life by the Renais- 
sance ; the discovery of America ; the French Revolution ; 
the colonial expansion of the British nation — all lead the 
pnpil into wider relations with humanity. 
™.- , ,,...»..- It must be understood that for such a scheme 

Tune for History 

Toaciiing. gf jjistory teaching a liberal amount of time 
must be afforded. History is the backbone of the entire 
instruction ; therefore at least four hours each week must 
be devoted to it. 

The Bible at Bible Hlstory gains immensely if it is treated 

HiBtory. historically side by side with secular history. 

Too often it is treated in scraps, no connexions being 

established, and no clear idea of the sequence of events 


given to the children. A scheme of Sacred History similar 
to that in use in the German schools could be used advan- 
tageously side by side with the secular history. Patriarchs, 
Judges, Kings, the life of Christ, the Apostles, the growth 
of the Christian Church, taught systematically year by year, 
would help the child clearly to establish the Christian 
ideal, and to understand its significance in the history of 
the Crusades, the idea which animated the early colonists 
who, like Columbus, wished to carry Christianity to heathen 
nations, the Pilgrim Fathers, and the strifes in connexion 
with the Reformation. After such a history course in the 
school life, every child would know a little of the forma- 
tive influences of some of the great nations of the world. 
The founding of Troy, and the stories of Helen, Achilles, 
and Ulysses would at any rate teach him that the Greeks 
had existed. The Founding of Rome and Julius Caesar, 
Alaric and the Fall of Rome, would leave the impression of 
the rise and fall of a powerful nation. 

A careful study of the history of the Jews and the rise 
of Christianity and its later struggles, amplified by lessons 
on the Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles, would cer- 
tainly show how powerfully Christianity affected the history 
of mankind, and a bold sketch of the men and events 
which made the British nation would help the children to 
become worthy citizens; The manner in which Literature 
and the other subjects are grouped around history is con- 
sidered in another chapter. 

It is ot profound importance that all the 
l^:l^T^. events be linked together chronologically. As 

logicauy. ^ ^^j^ ^^^ blankest ignorance prevails in the 
mind of the average child as to the place in time in the 



history of the world, 
of the discovery of 
America, Julius Cffisar, 
the birth of Christ, and 
the building of the 

Children delight in 
making time charts for 
themselves. I append 
two — one a simple line 
of time, and the other 
a chain linking the 
events together. These 
are simple and not 
overcrowded. The 
teacher should draw 
some such chart on the 
blackboard in every 
History lesson, and in- 
dicate the time of each 

What the child needs 
chiefly in his school 
History teaching is a 
broad, connected out- 
line of some of the 
periods of the world's 
history shown in the 
great men and great 
events which are the 
landmarks of time. 

Msscs leads the 
Israelites to the 
Promised Land 

Saul. David 

Jews return from 

Birth or£ITrist 
St Paul's teaching 

Christian Fathers 
Aiigustine brings 

Age or Myths 
Building of Pyramids 
of Egypt 

Story of Troy 

Games held at Olympia 

Rome founded 
Battle of Marathon 
Alexander the Great 


Julius Caesar conquers Britain 

Alarlc the Goth 
Fall of Rome 

Saxons come to Britain 



Alfred the Great 

Norman Conquest 
The Crusades 

Turks take Constantinople 


Columbus discovers America 

The Reformation Drake's voyaros 
Spanish Armada dofeated 
French Revolution 
Waterloo. Netson.Wetlingto.* 
IBB? I Diamond Jubilee Q. Victoria 

l Age or Myths 

^Building of Pyrtfrnlda 

Moses leads the 
Israelites to the 
promised Land 
Saul Davii 


Founding of Troy 

Jews return from Babylon 

Games held at Olympra 
Rome founded 
Battle of Marathon 
Alexander the Great 
Julius Caesar conquers Britain 

Birth of Chnat \ 
St Paul's teachingX 

Christian Fathers^ 

Alarlc the Goth 
Fall of Rome 
Saxons come to QHtain 

Alfred the Greit 

Norman Conquesj' 

The Crusades 
Turks take ConstantinopFe 
Columbus discovers America 
The Reformation. Drake's voyages 
Spanish Armada 
French Re'^olutlon 
Waterloo , Nelson . Wellington 
Diamond Jubliee.Q. Victoria 


' ' Every fairy tale worth recording at all is the remnant of a tra- 
dition possessing true historic value." — Ruskin. 

" Yea, a deeper import 
Lurks in the legend told my youthful years 
Than lie upon that truth we live to learn." 

— Coleridge. 
' ' By nothing is England so glorious as her poetry." — M. Arnold. 
" God's prophets of the Beautiful 
These poets were." 

— Mrs. Browning. 
" The acquisition of good poetry is a discipline which works deeper 
than any other discipline in the range of work of our schools ; more 
than any other, too, it works of itself." — M. Arnold. 

' ' To have even heard of Cervantes, of Dante, of Spenser, of Keats, 
is ii step in education. To know there is a literature of the world, 
and to have felt, even for a moment, something of its seriousness, its 
beauty, its generous position, its pathos, its humour, is to lay a good 
foundation. " — Prof. Dowden. 

" The charm, therefore, of what is classical in art or literature is 
that of the well-known tale, to which we can nevertheless listen over 
and over again, because it is told so well." — Walter Pater. 

" Books, which lay 
Their sure foundations in the heart of man. 
Whether by native prose, or numerous verse. 
That in the name of all inspired souls — 
From Homer the great Thunderer, from the voice 
That roars along the bed of Jewish song. 
And that more varied and elaborate, 
Those trumpet-tones of harmony that shake 
Our shores in England." 

— Wordsworth. 




Humanistic Group HAVING decided that history is to be the 
leading feature of the time-table, we are now 
in a position to discuss the Humanistic group of studies. 

Humanistic Group. 

I I 

I. II. III. 

Moral Instntction, Art Iiistruction, Language Instruction, 

1. Bible and Church History. i. Drawing. i. Mother Tongue. 

2. General History. 2. Modelling. 2. Foreign Languages, 

3. Literature. 3. Singing. Ancient or Modern. 

Imagination of We have scen that the young child is in 
ciiudren jjjg myth-making age; therefore he is pro- 
foundly interested in fairy tales, because they appeal to 
his imagination, and depict strongly, humanely, and 
vividly the relations of human beings to each other. 
" His mental state is very like that of primitive people, 
who attribute life and feeling to material objects and in- 
vest all things with human and divine qualities." ^ The 
child has a lively imagination, he delights in personi- 
fication. His dramatic instincts lead him to invent all 
kinds of scenes in which he himself is an actor ; he repre- 
sents all kinds of objects to himself after his own image, 
and he enters into conversations with imaginary animals 

' Compayre. 


and inanimate things. Nothing is too exalted to enter 
into the fancies of children. Says Wordsworth : 

" Oh ! give us once again the wishing cap 
Of Fortunatus, and the invisible coat 
Of Jack the Giant Killer, Robin Hood, 
And Sabra in the forest with St. George ! 
The child, whose love is here, at least doth reap 
One precious gain, that he forgets himself." 

Colonel Parker says: "The liveliest conscious activity 
of a child is fancy; the little creator creates his own 
world, and lives, moves, and has his being in it. All 
history proves this; myths, parables, fairy tales, have 
made children and childish peoples happy throughout the 
Poetical vaioe of ag"- Myths and fairy tales are the sure 

Fairy Tales. gjgjjg ^f jj^g uptumiug of the hearts of the 

little ones to God. The proper function of fancy in intel- 
lectual life is spirituality. Spiritual truths are hidden in 
the precious honey of stories." 

"Fairy tales prepare the child to appreciate poetry, and 
the human element in them satisfies his historic instinct."^ 
Fairy tales are not falsehoods, and the child who is 
amused or frightened by them is not deceived for an in- 
stant. Stories are the ideal, something truer than actual 
truth ; the triumph of the good, the beautiful, the true." 
Choice of Fairy '^'^^ ^^^^Y '^^^s must bc carcfully chosen 
Tales. "out of the simplest and na'ivest phases of 
different epochs of culture, stories which answer to the 
imagination of children and represent to them the charac- 
teristic features of the best part of humanity." ^ Morbid 
and foolish stories, together with all that is gross, vulgar, 

'■ Laboulaye. ^ Rosenkranz. 


and in bad taste, should be avoided. Simple, chaste, and 
naive the stories may be, but not sentimental. 

The OhUd li AUn 

to the People in The people in fairy tales accord with the 

the Fairy Tales. . 

casual, mconsequent manner in which a child 
thinks. Kings, queens, and courts are represented with 
charming simplicity. No half-and-half measures, no hesi- 
tating over motives, disturb the beautiful directness of the 
actions of these fairyland personages. They are good 
or bad, and they marry princesses or have their heads cut 
off accordingly. The giants are big, wicked, and woefully 
stupid; the valiant mortals who attack them are good, 
brave, and quick-quitted, and they always win. This 
satisfies poetical justice. Life in fairyland has its trials, 
but it is exciting and full of compensations. " In general, 
the people think and feel altogether like children. Just 
as the child knows only good and bad people in his inter- 
course, according to the sympathy or antipathy which they 
inspire in him, so also in the fairy tales the persons are 
either good or bad. In them the impatient feeling of jus- 
tice, so characteristic of young people, is always satisfied." ^ 
Rein's Vie of ^^6 Hcrbartians, as we have seen, depend 
Fairy Tales. gQjgjy upon fairy talcs for the Humanistic ma- 
terial in the first school year, when the child is six years 
of age. Prof. Rein, of Jena, and others, have selected a 
series of fairy tales suitable for this stage, and have also 
worked out the method of dealing with these stories in 
class, and shown how the other subjects are connected 
with them.^ "The Town Musicians of Bremen," "Snow 
White and Rose Red," " The Wolf and the Fox," " The 

' Lange. ' Das erste Schul-ahr. 


Wren King and the Bear," are among the stories chosen. 
The choice of the tales depend, in some measure, upon the 
locality in which the child lives, so that the home surround- 
ings may be interwoven with the thread of the story. 
The Ethical Value '^^^ Hcrbartians emphasize the ethical value 
of Fairy Tales, ^f ^-^^^ f^j^y jj^jg_ 2iller puts the casc clcarly 

in summing up the use of fairy tales. He says: "These 
tales being poetical are better suited than anything else to 
the earliest stage of the child's individuality, when imagin- 
ation, which needs cultivation because in it all higher 
aspirations are rooted, is strongest. They are not limited 
by time or space, for they are often without the names of 
persons or places. The child lives in them beyond the 
limits of the material, makes the dead living, puts a soul 
into the soulless, and has intercourse with the whole world 
as his equal. This has no bad influence on him, for the 
tales contain, besides their subjective view of things, a 
number of objective, aesthetic, and ethical ideas and prin- 
ciples consonant with reason. They serve especially to 
exercise the ethical judgment, as the tales open out a large 
field where many true and simple cases come before the 
child, upon which he can decide easily, quickly, and 

The method of presenting the story in the 

Method of Pre- , , . ,..,.. 

centing^the Fairy German schools IS to divide It into sections, 
each of which contains one or two striking 
points, and to discuss each section with the children, 
encouraging them to add their experiences and suggestions 
to the discussion. Thus in the story of Hilhnchen und 
Hahnchen, after the two had spent the day on the hills 
where the nuts grew, they were disinclined to walk home. 


"Why?" "Perhaps they were tired," cries one boy, "or 
lazy " suggests a second, " or ate too many nuts," suggests 
another. "They may have become too proud to walk," is 
a fourth speculation. " In any case they decide to drive," 
declares the teacher, "but where can they get a carriage ? " 
" Make one," is the prompt reply. " How ? " " They can 
cut down trees." "They might find some iron." "My 
brother made a carriage out of an old chair." " My father 
can make a wheelbarrow." " They could make a carriage 
out of a beer barrel," are the remarks and suggestions in 
reply to this query. 

" Well," resumes the teacher, " they made their carriage 
out of nut-shells." A ripple of laughter went round the 
class at this announcement, and an eager discussion began. 
" I can make a butterfly carriage out of walnut shells," 
declared one freckled-faced mite. "Cocoanut shells are 
bigger than walnut shells." " What a lot of shells they 
would want!" "Did they gum them all together?" were 
some of the remarks made. When the story has been 
discussed in this way — and it often takes several days to 
get through one story — the teacher reads it slowly and 
distinctly in the words of the author. There is no watering 
down the literature to suit the children ; they are taken to 
the original source at once, in order to accustom them to 
a good style. 

Language These lessons on the story are language 
lessons. lessons, inasmuch as the children contribute 
m.ore than the teacher to the discussion. They express 
their own thoughts in their own simple language. This is 
corrected, and in the frequent recapitulations the children 
are required to narrate the whole story in their own words. 


Dr»maticinrtinot.Their dramatic instincts are appealed to by 
appealed to. fjjgjj. j^gjj^g required to act the story. There is 
no preparation, no apparatus. This acting is very simple 
and quite impromptu. Two or three children are called 
out. One is Hiihnchen, another is Hahnchen, a third 
represents the duck. "But where is the carriage?" "I 
know," cries a small boy, and he turns a chair upside down. 
The pointer is the whip, and the table the inn, and so they 
go on inventing the dialogue and acting the story with 
great seriousness and evident enjoyment. The drawing 
lessons are delightful. The children make rough sketches 
to illustrate objects or incidents in the story. The duck, 
the pin, and the needle, the egg which the duck laid, and so 
on. Songs are selected which bear upon the home life or 
school work. All the festivals of Church and 

Aasoclation of the _ 

School and ramrch civil life are observed, and hymns and patri- 
otic songs are learned and sung. Christmas 

is, of course, associated with the story of the Child 

Christ, Christmas hymns, a Christmas tree, presents, and 

general festivities. 

School and '^'^^ festivitics in honour of the victory over 
citizenLife. jjjg French at Sedan are also a favourite school 

Sedan Festival. , , _ . 

festival. Sedantag is a day given up to pro- 
cessions, sports and games in the meadows. All the chil- 
dren assemble in the school in the morning, and sing 
thanksgiving and patriotic songs, recite war ballads, and 
hear an address on the victory. The games are organized 
in the meadows, and all the girls are dressed in white, with 
garlands in their hair, while the boys wear a sash. They 
are refreshed in the intervals of the games, not with tea and 
buns, but white beer and bread-and-sausage. The last- 


named " national dainty is cooked out of doors under the 
trees on huge gridirons, and clouds of blue smoke are 
emitted in the process, which hang over the meadows and 
become a part of one's memory of a Sedan school festival. 
In the second school-year the children are 

Eoblnson Cmsoe. 

seven years old. The literary material given 
to them at this stage is Robinson Crusoe. Rousseau was 
one of the first to recognise the educational value of 
Robinson Crusoe; and Ziller was the first to give it a re- 
cognised place in a systematic plan of instruction. The 
imagination of the child has been fostered by the fairy tale ; 
it must still be kept lively, but its activity must be limited, 
and the child must be led into the realm of the possible. 

Roosseanon Rousseau cxclaims that he hates books. 
™oe- (( jjjgy Qjjjy teach us to talk about what we 
do not understand." He makes an exception, however, in 
favour of Robinson Crusoe. He considers it sufficient for 
Emile's entire library. " It shall be the text on which all 
our discussions of natural science shall be only commen- 
taries." 1 He would have his pupil carried away by the 
story, he should play Robinson Crusoe, and go through all 
the experiences for himself. 

Ziller shows how Robiiison Crusoe takes the child back 
into prehistoric times, when man, through many obstacles, 
made himself master of nature. The child learns in the 
story of Robinson Crusoe to realize those early times and 
the value of simple inventions. He gains his first insight 
into the history of invention and culture. Robinson must 
build his own house, find his own food, make his own 

^ Rousseau, Emik, 


rude pottery, and his own simple clothes. With these 
Relation between incidents are closely associated a wealth of 
KoMnson°Md°the material in elementary geography, natural 

Child'a Environ- . , . , , ^. ah aT_' 

ment. science, drawing and observation. All this 
helps to make the story valuable for school purposes. 
The method of presenting the story follows that of the 
fairy tales. Some details of these lessons are given later. 
Age of Heroic '^^^ Herbartians give the children heroic 
Sagas, sagas as the literary material in'the third school- 
year. Herbart declared in favour of Greek sagas ; but as 
Germany is rich in heroic stories, the German sagas are 
usually preferred in German schools. William Morris says 
that the story of the Volsungs is the great national saga of 
the North, and he would have it to be to our race what the 
tale of Troy was to the Greeks. It may become a part of 
our school material for a later generation when it is more 
accessible for school purposes. 

The German Sagas tell of the heroes of the 
iationtohis° German people. The child soon becomes 
Native Sagas, fj^^jjj^^ ^jjjj them. They speak his language 

and live in his land. " These bold heroes into whose 
world of thought and deed he has already been introduced 
by the stories of the neighbourhood, the castle ruins grey 
with age, the knights' armour and weapons, popular belief 
and legend." ^ These heroes " still live on in the mouth 
and hearts of the German people." 

" The Saga treads earthly ways more than 

The Saga deals . . 

with Historical the fairy tale, and turns with preference to 

Figures. , , , . 

human figures and deeds, as it connects its 
' Lange. 


tales with definite persons and places, and not seldom 
mingles with these some real historical facts, and so it 
forms the natural transition from the fairy tale to history." 
One cannot help being impressed by the 

Thnringlan Sagas. _ . . 

influence of the Thuringian Sagas on the lives 
of the children. Ludwig is a very real person to them, and 
the Wartburg, Rudelsburg, Freiburg, and other castles in 
the country excite their profoundest interest. " Have you 
no Ludwig in England ? " a little boy asked me as he re- 
counted to me deeds of his hero during a walk to the 
Wartburg. " Aren't you sorry you haven't a Ludwig ? " he 
persisted. I wondered to how many English children 
Alfred or King Arthur were such real personages. 

Herbart insisted that stories from the clas- 
the influance or sical age of childhood among the Greeks 

furnished fit mental food for children. " Give 
them an interesting story," he writes, "rich in incidents, 
relationships, characters, strictly in accordance with psycho- 
logical truth not beyond the feelings and ideas of children ; 
make no effort to depict the worst or best, only let a faint 
half-unconscious moral tact secure that the interest of the 
action tends away from the bad towards the good, the just 
and the right, then you will see how the child's attention is 
fixed on it, how it seeks to discover the truth and think 
over all sides of the matter." 

Such a story, he says, must " carry on its face the stamp 
of human greatness," for children readily distinguish the 
commonplace. The boy of eight wishes to be a man ; his 
outlook extends beyond all stories written to children. 
" Present to the boy, therefore, such men as he himself 
would like to be. Such you will certainly not find near 


at hand, for the boy's ideal of the man corresponds to 
nothing which has grown up under the influence of our 
present culture." 

This ideal personality, Herbart says, is to be 

Method of ,. , . ~ , • , , , 

Teaching the found in Greek stories, and he commends us to 

the history of Achilles and Ulysses. 

The method of teaching the Sagas is the same in the 
main as in the fairy tales. The following is an outline of a 
lesson I heard on Ludwig at Altenburg : 

The teacher stated the aim of the lesson thus : " Why 
was Landgraf Ludwig named the Springer ? " 

As the lesson developed the boys sat fascinated with 
interest. At the first halting place the points were summed 

1. Ludwig had committed a sin. 

2. The Kaiser had thrown him in prison. 

3. He was destined to die. 

He was imprisoned in the castle called Giebichenstein, 
situated on a high rock, below which the river Saale flowed. 
He was closely watched. Then followed a vivid account of 
the cunning he employed to deceive his keepers, — how he 
wrapped himself up in many clothes and threw himself from 
the tower into the river below ; how he escaped on a white 
horse, and how later he built a church to expiate his sin. 

I afterwards visited the castle near Halle and the church 
in company with school children, and I was again thrilled 
by accounts of the famous leap. 

A Saga reading-book is used which contains the sub- 
stance of the stories simply written in good German. A 
general reading-book is also used ; this contains prose and 
poetical selections which are read in connexion with the 


History and Natural Science and geographical descriptions. 
The Bible is also read in school. The rough sketching, be- 
Roueh Sketching g"° ^^ connexion with fairy tales, is continued 

'"^tutt^™ in the 2nd and 3rd school-years. The children 
stories. ^j.^^ towers, gateways, bridges, and castles. 
Sometimes they draw a whole series of pictures to illustrate 
the story. These are not accurate or finished productions, 
but they are often vivid. The story of Ludwig and the 
poor pedlar was illustrated by a boy of eight, who showed 
them to me with keen interest. The market place at Eisen- 
ach, Ludwig on his steed attended by a crowd of knights, 
the winding path up to the Wartburg and the castle in the 
distance, the pedlar with his pack, were all depicted and ex- 
plained to me by the boy. 

Lmguage "^^^ Icssons in the mother tongue consist of 
Lessons. ^]^g forming of sentences, and continual practice 
in speaking correctly in continuous narrative. All the 
lessons in the lower classes appear to be language lessons 
more or less. The geography lessons and the school 
excursions and journey are closely connected with the 
sagas. This point is discussed in the next chapter. 

Hibeiimgeii After the child has studied the stories of his 
saga». own district, he rises to the National Saga, the 
Nibelungenlied ; Siegfried, and Gundrun become his heroes. 
These stories are used as the historical material, and are 
read in a simple prose reading-book, while poems such as 
Uhland's "Siegfried's Sword" are read and learnt in con- 
nexion with them. The geography studied in connexion 
with these Siegfried stories is the Rhine and Danube. 

" The most useful exercise of imagination," 

The stage of Real , 

History, gays Professor Blackie, "is when it buckles 


itself to realities.'' In the fifth school-year the child, 
having passed through the myth-making age and the age 
of heroic romance, is confronted with real history. He 
studies the lives of Otto the Great, Charlemagne, Alfred 
the Great, and other famous characters " who incarnate the 
history which they create." 

These stories are presented to the children in vivid 
pictures. The teacher's language needs colour, in order to 
bring before the child's imagination the very men them- 

The child has now reached the age of reality, and his 
further studies are taken from the pages of history. 

In the sixth, seventh, and eighth school-years he gets a 
good outline of the history of his own country, as well as 
some general idea of striking events and persons in other 
lands. In the Karolinen Schule in Eisenach I found that 
the girls studied the Elizabethan Age, Louis XIV. and XV., 
The French Revolution, Napoleon I., France and Italy in 
the Nineteenth Century, and a little Oriental History. 
usesofKBading- The Reading lessons tend to supplement and 
Book, in School, g^jjj interest to the historical studies. The use 
of the school reading-book is described in I>as dritte 
Schuljahr by Herr Pickel, one of the teachers in the 
Eisenach school. He says the function of the reading, 
book " is to prepare for, deepen, and bring into a connected 
whole the various sections of the general instruction. It 
should, for example, embrace in history, literary products 
rising out of a period and about it, through which a glance 
is opened into the varying culture of bygone days, namely, 
historical saga, poems, simple historical narratives from the 
original sources, and, besides these, descriptions of events 


(historical pictures), such as serve both as connecting-links 
for the instruction and as models of narrative style. For 
the geography and Naiurkunde it should contain descrip- 
tions complete in themselves and beautiful, including 
suitable poems so far as these can be provided by our 

The Reading-books in the German schools form a valu- 
able connecting link between the various school studies 
and the home life and environment of the children. 
Bpeciai Beading. Special Reading-books are prepared for special 
^°'''"' districts'; therefore the historical associations and 
geographical peculiarities of the child's own neighbourhood 
are introduced. The importance of giving children infor- 
mation of their own surroundings cannot be too strongly 
emphasized. In the reading-books used in Thuringia are to 
be found "The Jena Church," "The Battlefield of Jena," 
"The Thuringian Forest," "The Wartburg," " The Saale,"i 
" Eisenach," " Luther," " The Erl-King," 2 selections from 
Schiller's Song of the Bell.^ Stories of the great men of 
Weimar and of Goethe and Schiller are very suitably placed 
in these Reading-books. 

Stirring ballads by great writers, which serve 
to intensify the historical narratives, are also 
read and committed to memory. Germany is rich in such 
ballads, and they form an essential part ot school Reading- 
books. " Siegfried's Sword," " Barbarossa," " Arminius," 
" Charlemagne," " King Otto I.," " Gundrun's Lament," are 
examples of such poems. 

' The river on which Jena stands. 

* The scene of this poem is a village near Jena. 

^ Schiller studied bell-casting at Rudolstadt, near Jena. 



j^. The Quelleniuch (Book of Original Sources) 

aueuenbucii. jg intimately associated with the history teach- 
ing, and portions of it are sometimes to be found in the 
school Reading-books. At random I pick the following 
examples from it : 

Letters of Tacitus describing the country and the man- 
ners of the ancient Germans. 

A letter written by Boniface to Pope Zacharias describ- 
ing the founding of the cathedral at Fulda. 

Goethe's account of Frederick the Great. 

The Proclamation of the German Emperor on the Con- 
solidation of the Empire, 1871. 

Many Natural History pieces are also included in the 
„,,,,, In the books of the lower classes are to be 

Keadlng-Boolu for 

Lower cuMe.. fg^jd, firstly, pieces referring to the home and 
village or town life. " The Home," " Mother and Child," 
" The Child and School," " Christmas," " The Christ Child," 
"The New Year," "Good-Night," "The All-Seeing God," 
"Sunday," "The Baker," "The Weaver," "The Snow 
Man," "The Village," "The Mill," "The Church"; the 
simple and homely proverbs which are scattered up and 
down the Reading-books, and which teach thrift and perse- 
verance, may be included in the home-life group. 

Secondly, pieces referring to the life of Nature : " Who 
wakes the Flowers?" "Sleep of the Flowers," "Com- 
ing of Spring," "The Fir-tree," "Forest Song," "The 
Blue Violet," "The Squirrel," "The Hare," "Autumn," 

Thirdly, the Fairy Tales, Fables, and Sagas, which have 
already been discussed 


The best German patriotic songs are always to be found 
in the school Reading-books. 

It is hardly necessary to mention that the Reading-books 
are not read straight through. Portions are carefully 
selected which bear upon the other lessons. 

The point I particularly wish to emphasize 
andEeiation here is the value of logical sequence and the 
relations of ideas. The Herbartians endeav- 
our to give what they call "educative instruction" by 
awakening thoughts and groups of thoughts in the pupils' 
minds in connected order. One idea is linked to its 
natural companion, and new ideas are grasped and linked 
to the group to which they ought to belong. 

Hence the child learns " to know by wholes," 

The Mini Unifies _,, , . . , 

Ideas, but It as Plato says, and m time he comes to regard 
the world not as a few groups of scattered 
events, but as a harmonious unit. It is the low stage of 
intelligence that supposes objects to exist in independent 
groups; the trained and thoughtful mind sees relations. 
We know that the human mind has a natural tendency 
to unify its knowledge, but it is unreasonable to thrust 
all kinds of disconnected facts haphazard upon unformed 
childish minds, and to expect them to arrange these facts 

Many of our school Reading-books contain excellent 
literary and historical matter, but we too often neglect 
sequence and points of relation in our use of them, 
wantof snuence I pi^k up a literary school Reading-book at 
°"Sb°^°° random and find Bacon on Studies succeeded 
Boom. ^y ^ psalm from the Old Testament, which 
is followed by a portion of Beowulf i 


Selections from Dante, Xenophon, Defoe, 
°MeM°in° Plato, and Keats, are the kinds of sequences 
withBegardto One finds, and the children read straight on 
Sequence, tJJ).Q^gJJ jjjg book, and obtain a sad confusion 
of ideas on writers and persons, and their relation to 
the world's progress. If the development of the child 
is the aim which is to rule our school curriculum, we 
must consider the sequence of events and the relation- 
ships of school studies. 

Try a simple experiment with twenty intelligent children 
picked from Standards VI. and VII. Draw a line ot 
time on the Blackboard. 


Childhood of Time of Christ. Present 

the World. Day. 

Give half a dozen names, say — Scott, David, Homer, 
Shakespeare, Dickens, Plato, and Tennyson, and ask the 
children to place these names according to their position 
in time in the world's history. 

The following is no exaggeration of the confusion ot 

thought which prevails. 

Shakespeare, Scott. David + Homer, Dickens. Tennyson. 

Childhood of Time of Present 

World. Christ. Day. 

Sometimes the children refuse to attempt the task at 
all, and frequently they leave David out altogether, be- 
cause there is no connexion between the Bible teaching 
and other school subjects; hence they vaguely consider 
people in the Bible as transcendental personages who have 
no existence out of the pages of Holy Writ 


We spend a large portion of lime in our 

Wasted Effort In . , , . ..,.,, 

our Reading primary schools in requiring children to read 


literary selections, much of which seems wasted 
effort, for rarely do the children acquire either the power 
of reading aloud intelligibly, or a taste for good literature. 
„, , _ . A recent circular from the Educational De- 

Slovenly Fro- 

BOTapptaeM""? partment calls attention to the slovenly enun 
Thonght. ciation and the monotonous intonation in the 
reading of school children, and the enormous increase of 
late years in scrappy and worthless publications ot the 
Tit-bits and Scraps type indicates that though our grow- 
ing and adult population can read, the taste for ephe- 
meral and even pernicious literature is increasing at an 
alarming rate. 

The chief aim of the reading lessons in our primary 
schools is too frequently to get through so many reading- 
books in an allotted time. When the teacher has defined 
some of the unfamiliar words in the passage and made a 
few impatient observations on neglected aspirates, and re- 
quired the children to read through the whole piece simul- 
taneously and breathlessly, and a few children have read 
individually, often in an inaudible or slovenly manner, the 
lesson is supposed to be concluded satisfactorily. 

That the reading of literature in school has 

Value of t ■ 1 1 • n 

Literature in z. high moral influence IS a matter that the 


teacher rarely considers. Matthew Arnold was 
constantly emphasizing this. He says, " The reading 
lessons should be used not only to secure the bare power 
of reading — a most valuable power . . . but they should 
be made to contribute to the opening of the soul and 


It is admirable that a child should be able to read a 
passage ol Julius Casar or a ballad of Macaulay clearly 
and distinctly, but it is more admirable if he be able to 
feel and appreciate them. 

" To be incapable of a feeling of poetry," says Words- 
worth, " in my sense of the word, is to be without love 
of human nature and reverence for God." 

It is not my intention in this little work to 

Reading Rhonld 

FoBtoraLoM go into the difficulties of teaching reading, 

ofLlteratnre. , , 

but it is my duty to emphasize the fostering 
of a love of literature. Local interest, careful selection 
of stirring ballads, and beautiful descriptions, associated 
with other studies, clear comprehension of the subject, 
and proper treatment of the reading material have much 
to do with arousing interest in the lessons. 

The selection and proper treatment of good literary 
material are of the profoundest importance in our school 
instruction. Upon this depends the child's interest in the 
world and in humanity, which he will seek to gratify in 
after-life by reading real literature. 

To be able to read with sustained pleasure 

Some Training 

is Necesmry in such works as Hypatia, JuUus Ccesar, Ivanhoe, 

order to lie able 

to Appreciate or RomoM, requircs a certain amount of pre- 

Literature. . , , 

liminary training, combined with some classic, 
historic, and geographic interest, and those who have 
listened to stories of the Greeks, the Goths, the Romans, 
the Saxons, and the Florentines, will read with satisfaction 
and comprehension, because they can relate the incidents 
with previous knowledge and locate the events in the 
progress of the world 


Shakespeare Goethe^J""*'"'" 
Marlowe MUton Schille/^ °'"°*"'"K 
Lulher/^ * ~ -» ■ . 


To face f>age 70.] 

No attempt is made at comparative heights. The idea is simply to give the children an idea of the great periods of literature in the 
world's histor/j and to associate names of great men with these periods. 


vaiu« of ^ append a literature chart. Here the great 
'''on^y' periods in the world's history of thought are 
massed together chronologically as groups of 
mountains. Children will readily draw such charts. They 
may take the form of rivers, trees, chains, as the fancy 
dictates. No reading or literature lessons should be 
permitted to take place without such a chart drawn upon 
the blackboard. 

" Come lorth into the light of things, 
Let Nature be your teacher." — Wordsworth. 
" Wherever our home is, there lie all the materials for the study of 
the entire globe ; the eye may be easily trained to see the greater in 
the less." — Carl Ritter. 

' ' A correct philosophy of the world and of life is possible to a 
person only on the basis of knowledge of oneself and of one's relation 
to surrounding nature." — Waitz. 

" Are we not, as well as the old philosophers, placed in Nature's 
garden ? Why then do we not cast about our eyes, ears, and nostrils, 
as well as they ? Why do we not, I say, turn over the living book of 
the world instead of old papers ? " — Comeinus. 

" He, who in his youth 
A daily wanderer among woods and fields 
With living Nature hath been intimate, 
Not only in that raw unpractised time 
Is stirred to ecstacy, as others are. 
By glittering verse ; but further, doth receive, 
In measure only dealt out to himself. 
Knowledge and increase of enduring joy 
From the great Nature that exists in works 
Of mighty poets." — WORDSWORTH. 
" It ought to be made an important portion of the weekly work ot 
every school to take the children into the country to breathe its balm, 
grow strong in its healthy breezes, see and enjoy its beauties, and 
receive there that glorious training of sense and soul, head and heart, 
possibly only beneath the blue vault of heaven. In truth, the country 
should become an outer, uncovered class-room — a Divine museum 
utilized by our teachers." — RtJSKiN on Education. 


Natural Science Group. 






Ma ikematics. 

Mathematical Geography. 

Object Lessons. 


Physical Geography. 

Natural Science. 


School Journey. 

We have briefly considered the first group 

Connexion r i_ • 

ietween 01 suDJects, and it HOW remains to us to 

Humanistic and 

Natural Science consider the second group, and discover how 


It may be arranged with reference to the 
first group in order to obtain points of connexion. The 
idea prevails among some teachers that history is a 
distinct study, having no connexion with geography, and 
that' a child can learn geography in junior classes and 
history in senior classes. Geography and history are 
natural companions, and should be studied side by side. 
Compayre says, " The history of France is the soul of 
the country and the natural geography is its body." 
Geography teaching is on a fairly respectable footing in 
our primary schools. Mr. Bain tells us "that geography, 
after arithmetic, is the study that is most advanced in 
respect of method." 

stndyofchiid'B The method generally recognised in our 
Environment, gchools follows tlie principles laid down by 



Reclus more or less thoroughly. " We must always take 
as a starting-point what the child sees ; but does he see 
nothing more than the school and his village? He sees 
also the infinite heaven, the sun, stars, and moon. He 
sees the storms, the clouds, the rain, the distant horizon, 
the mountains, the hills, the downs, or simple undulations, 
and trees and shrubs. This is real geography, and to 
learn it the child has not to go beyond the things which 
surround him, and which are exhibited to him in their 
infinite variety," We know that the child's mind is full 
of ideas which he has gained at home, in the streets, 
fields, and lanes, by means of experience. The instruc- 
tion which the teacher must bring to enlarge the child's 
store of experiences should be taken from the same 
source, the surroundings of the child. " The child on 
entering school," says Lange, " has mastered only a limited 
part of his surroundings, and many of his home observa- 
tions need clearing up and sifting; we lead him back 
into the old familiar world in which he has hitherto lived, 
and which is dear to him. We teach him to know it 
better, and to make him more familiar with it we develop 
a knowledge of his home environment." 

The Heimaikunde or study of the home 


ofB«rmMi surroundmgs which one finds in the lower 


classes in the German schools, is a true m- 
troduction to real geography. Heimatkunde is a com- 
prehensive word. It includes the plants of the garden, 
the trees and creatures of the forest, the industries of the 
village or town, and the agricultural products, as well as 
a very careful study of the hills, valleys, rivers and 
streams in the immediate neighbourhood. These Heimat- 


kunde lessons correspond to our object lessons, with 
the difference that there is much more active observation 
on the part of the German child, and the lessons 
frequently take place out of doors, in the garden, the 
forest, or meadow, by the river, on the hill, or in the 
valley. Only those things which come under the child's 
personal observation are studied. Lessons, for instance, 
on the papyrus reed or the kangaroo would be 
General subject, excluded as being beyond the child's experi- 
ence. The proper time to teach these would 
be when the child was studying Egypt and Australia. If 
a menagerie visited the town or village, and the children 
were able to make their own observations on the lion 
and elephant, lessons on these animals would be suitable 
and necessary. 

It is not' uncommon in English schools to find general 
subjects such as "Trees," "A bunch of spring flowers," 
included in a list of object lessons. Lange especially warns 
teachers against general discussions on the " seasons," 
"garden," "forest," etc., and points out that they should 
rather start with a definite "mountain,' pond, or river of 
the neighbourhood, and always return to it, if thereby " ob- 
scured and unsettled ideas can be lifted into clearness." 
" Not the general, but only the particular, the special, the 
individual, can be an object of these Heimatkunde lessons. 
The child studies the class-room and school- 
and owden, and buildiugs first ; hc mcasurcs doors, windows, 
desks, and floor-space, and develops plans of 
these observations on the blackboard with the teachers. 
The school garden and playground are next studied. The 
garden affords an ample field of investigation. The vine 


which climbs around the window, the cherry trees, the rose 
bush, the lilies of the valley which the children brought 
from the forest and planted themselves, the swallows, the 
butterflies, the snails, and the caterpillars all offer an in- 
finite variety of materials for Nature study. They learn 
to observe the sun, and the shadows it casts at various 
times of the day, they make daily observations on the 
weather. With a simple rain-gauge they measure the 
rainfall. They keep caterpillars, and watch their various 
transformations. They bring frog-spawn from the nearest 
pond, and observe how tadpoles and frogs develop. Later 
they extend their observations to the entire town, and 
map out its chief streets and buildings. They make many 
excursions into the forest, fields, and meadows. They 
watch the farmer sowing seeds in spring, and the harvesting 
in the autumn. They observe the crops, and distinguish 
between the kinds of vetches and clover. They count the 
grains of corn on a single ear, and consider the kinds 
of beet-root from which sugar is made. 

outdoor Several excursions of this kind are well fixed 

obaervations. ^^^ ^y memory. With a class of little girls 
of seven, who were making observations with their teacher, 
I crossed the stream which ran near the school, climbed 
the hill on the opposite side of the valley, and here watched 
them as they pointed out the school, the church, the gas- 
works, the flour-mill, the chief streets, and several of the 
homes of the children. In the class-room afterwards I 
watched them day by day as they related their experiences 
and developed a plan of their observations on the black- 
board with their teachers. Again, with a class of boys 
from Jena, I climbed the Salgenberg and watched the boys 


make observations on the sun, indicate the points of the 
compass and point out the river Saale flowing through 
the valley, its right and left bank, and discuss its course. 
They pointed out two smaller valleys — the Miihlthal and 
Gemdenthal — and the streams which ran through them, and 
the chief heights of the neighbourhood. Later I saw these 
boys making a large clay model in the school of these 

" This home instruction demands therefore a wandering 
through the home neighbourhood in all directions ; it re- 
quires of the child a continued observation of what is and 
what transpires in its surroundings. This kind of instruc- 
tion would completely miss its purpose if, instead of the 
objects themselves, it were to present merely pictures, such 
as are so popular in the pictorial lessons of our schools, 
or if it were to attempt to overcome the deficiencies of the 
child's perception through scattered descriptions borrowed 
from a text-book, and through the mere word of the 

The child " must see and hear and observe with his 
senses the things the perception of which he is to share ; 
and since in general " things do not come to the children,'' 
says Lange, " the school has to take the children to the 

The English teacher has not yet learned to do this 
successfully. We believe too entirely in class-room studies 
and knowledge which can be neatly put down on an ex- 
amination paper, to waste much time on giving the children 
opportunities to learn from their own observation and 
experience. When the German child has carefully studied 
his own district, he takes wider flights. The school journey 


comes in and furnishes him with more extended fields for 

Th. School The aim of the school journey is to give 
jounnjr. jjjg j,j^jj^ ^jj outlook beyond his home environ- 
ment. I have accompanied the boys on several school 
journeys in and around the Thiiringian Forest, and this 
district is certainly a rich harvest for such journeys, with 
its miles of pine and beech woods, its winding valleys, 
wooded hills, ruined castles, and mountain heights. Op- 
portunities of studying plant and animal life, and of gaining 
concrete ideas of valleys, rivers, quarries, and mountains, 
are numerous. Its historical associations are also rich, 
the Thiiringian Sagas, the Crusades, and Luther have left 
many memories, and Goethe and Schiller have left behind 
them many literary associations. 

Geography helps to make history real to the 

Hntory»nd children. On the Landgrafenberg, a height 
above Jena, where Napoleon's armies gained 
a victory in 1806, I have heard a wonderfully lucid history 
lesson. The direction of the valleys, and the course of the 
river, the position of the forests, and height and slope of 
the hills all show why certain armies stayed in certain 
places, why they took certain directions, and why they 
fought the battle where they did. 

The school journey begins with the third school year — 
when the child is about eight years of age — and is con- 
tinued until the eighth school year. I will sketch one 
or two in which I have taken part. Recently I accom- 
panied a party of little boys of the third school year on 
their first school journey. They were studying the Thiirin- 
gian Sagas and the geography of Thiiringia. The pre- 


paration lessons prior to the journey were 
L.ason. tor a helpful and suggestive, and I gathered that we 

School Journey. . . . . ^ . j . 

were going to study the river Saale and its 
tributaries in a distant district. Castles which Ludwig had 
built were to be visited. A cathedral at Naumburg was 
to be studied. The boys had observed and drawn round- 
arched and pointed-arched church doors and windows, and 
various kinds of towers from churches and castles in and 
near Jena, so they had some ideas on castles and churches 
to help them to understand those we were to study during 
the journey. We were to visit salt-springs, and sugar 
factories, and to examine a peculiar kind of beet-root which 
was used in making sugar, and which did not grow in the 
boys' own neighbourhood. Vineyards and sandstone quar- 
ries were also to be visited — these were also unfamiliar to 
the children in their own district. Each child had a simple 
map of the district, which the master had sketched for him. 
Tiir* School- ^^ rambled for three days, sleeping at quaint 
year Journey, qj^ jjjjjg a,t night, and living on simple fare. 
We saw the Saale broader and more imposing than in the 
home district, and we studied the confluence where the 
Ilm joined it. We climbed to the Saaleck, a ruined tower 
built on an eminence and commanding a wide view of the 
Saale and the valleys. We heard how it was built by the 
bold German knights a thousand years ago to keep off the 
invading Slavonic tribes who came down upon the country. 
We sang war songs and national Thiiringian songs. We 
examined autumn berries, found green frogs, brown lizards, 
and curious moths. We rested in beech woods and 
watched the squirrels ; we pelted each other with horse- 
chestnuts ; we visited the salt springs and other places of 


interest in the town of Kosen ; we studied the cathedral at 
Naumburg, its doors, windows, towers, its choirs, crypt and 
statues ; we compared an ancient gateway with a gateway 
in Jena, and we slept in a rambling old inn at Freiburg. 
Next day we examined Freiburg Castle in detail, wandered 
through the valley by the river Unstrut, studied a stone 
quarry, sat by the wayside and tasted the different kinds ot 
beet-root, passed through the vineyards, and made many 
other discoveries and observations. The boys were keen 
and appreciative; and when they returned home brown 
and sturdy, they had many personal experiences and 
observations, which were referred to and supplemented in 
the class-room during the school work. The school 
journey is also considered valuable on the grounds that it 
enlarges the boys' intercourse with his fellows. He meets 
strangers, and learns how to behave towards them. It 
also affords the masters an opportunity of getting to know 
and study the character of individual boys under natural 
conditions when the restraint of the school routine is 
Journey of Fifth ^ joumcy of six days with the boys of the 

school Year, gffjj gchool-year in the Bavarian Highlands 
(Rhongebirge) was a valuable experience. 

The boys were studying the life of Boniface together, 
with the geography of the Rhongebirge. We studied 
the formation of rocks, the direction of rivers, the roads 
and railways. We climbed two or three mountains. We 
visited the cathedral at Fulda, and saw the statue and 
grave of Boniface. We spent a night in a monastery on the 
Kreuzberg. We were present at a Roman Catholic proces- 
sion and festival at Wiistensachsen. We went into a coal 


mine; we visited wood-carving workshops; we saw the 
processes of pipe-making, of sheep-shearing and wool- 
weaving. We had many opportunities of making com- 
parisons between the unfruitful nature of the soil in these 
high regions and the rich land in the Jena valley. We com- 
pared plants, rocks, the houses of the people, and the 
churches. Jena is a Protestant district, and this was a 
Roman Catholic neighbourhood, therefore the boys were 
much interested in the differences they found in the 
churches. The long marches through beautiful country, 
the beech woods, the primitive meals, the kindly entertain- 
ment by the monks, and the many adventures which befel 
us, will ever remain in my memory. The cost was trifling, 
but the accommodation was often exceedingly simple. 
Sometimes the boys slept on straw beds ; but, in spite of 
privations, all the boys were well and happy when we re- 
turned to Jena singing home songs. That the journey 
had been beneficial in enriching the boys' minds no one 
could doubt who witnessed the lessons afterwards, and 
watched their intelligent appreciation and eager replies when 
allusions were made in the lessons to their experiences 
gathered on the journey. 

Enough has been said to show how the instruction in 
school aims at increasing the child's experience and inter- 
course during his school life. Other school journeys asso- 
ciated with the life of Luther, and connected with the Harz 
Mountains and the battlefields near Leipsic, are referred to 
in the time table. This sketch serves to show how close 
the connexion may be between history and geography, 
and how real both these studies are made to the child- 


Our land is as rich as any in the world in 
ttoo°ujii''aeogra- historical material scattered all over the country 
'""'' in the form of beautiful churches, old castles, 
battlefields and halls, which may be found in any neigh- 

Luther, Ludwig, and Boniface are realities to the German 
child. He has seen the ink-stains on the table where 
Luther translated the Bible, and the church door on which 
he fixed his famous propositions. He has stood in the 
castles which Ludwig built to defend his land ; and he has 
seen the grave of Boniface. He has identified himself, as it 
were, with the heroes of his country. 
E»gu.h M.ten=,iH Om Arthur, Alfred, Richard the Lion-hearted, 
for School jonnisy.^^j Cranmer might become a part of the life 
of every English child if we gave history the position it 
merits in our primary schools. How the stories of Alfred 
and Hereward would inspire the children who lived within 
a school-journey distance of the Vale of the White Horse 
and Ely if these districts were properly used to make history 
a living reality to the children. How vivid and life-like 
would be the impressions of a Roman town, if the children 
of Hampshire, Berkshire, and Oxfordshire were taken to 
Silchester to see the mosaic pavements, pottery, Roman 
houses, bricks, and Roman wall; and how eager would be 
their interest in the story of Julius Csesar, and later in 
Shakespeare's play, after their concrete experiences of a 
Roman town at Silchester. One can imagine a fascinating 
study of the Elizabethan period and Shakespeare in con- 
nexion with a journey through Warwickshire, visiting 
Kenilworth, Stratford, and Warwick. ^ " What a wealth of 

' Felkin : Introduction to Herbarfs Education. 


material London, and many other English towns offer. 
Starting from the mere names of London streets, with which 
a London child is, or can be made familiar, a skilful teacher 
can help him to people them with the life of the past, and 
by descriptions, and pictures, and visits to different spots, 
can bring Roman, Saxon, Norman, and Elizabethan London 
in succession before him. The crowded Walbrook and 
Fleet Street become once more the little rivers falling into 
the Thames, and the three streams the eastern, western and 
southern boundaries and protections of the first British 
settlement; a wild moor, now Moorfields, its northern boun- 
dary, and beyond a vast forest, stretching far away to the 
northward, the remains of which are to be seen at Epping. 
In some such way a child may get an idea of the first set- 
tlements of our forefathers, and learn how from barren 
marsh, dense forests, and clay-built huts, the city of five 
million people has grown." 

Impressive and eloquent stories are told by old walls, 

buildings, and even names. They lead the child back to 

the times of his ancestors. 

Connexion, be- ^he relations between history, and geography 

GMp:»^h5^°^d ^^^ natural science, are so closely interwoven 

''"'"'■'^°'™"in a Herbartian school in Germany, and they 

appear so natural, that one is inclined to wonder how these 

subjects can ever be dissociated. 

Geometry, which is begun in the fourth 

Geometry and its . ■.. ■. • n n 

Appucationon school year, is Studied practically as well as 
theoretically. The boys measure distances, 
and calculate spaces. The schoolroom, garden, and neigh- 
bourhood afford practice in the earlier stages ; later, mensu- 
ration is studied, and Euclid. This knowledge is apphed 


in the workshop, where they make wooden and cardboard 
models of churches and castles they have visited. In the 
workshop, also, the boys model in clay pieces of ornamenta- 
tion from church doorways, arches, and windows. These 
are afterwards cast in plaster of Paris, and used to illustrate 
the history lessons. 

A glance at the time table will show that the 

Arithmetic. .... ... 

arithmetic is very similar to our own, but much 
simpler, on account of the Decimal System which is em- 
ployed in money, weights and measures. 

In the lower classes the arithmetic lessons are very 
thorough, and the advance is very slow. 

The work is almost entirely oral throughout the school. 
The practice of giving problems, and causing the children to 
work them individually on slates or paper, I have never 
seen employed in German schools. The master propounds 
the problem — it has usually some practical application to 
the other work — and the boys work it out on the black- 
board. They proceed very slowly, step by step, and every 
point is made clear to them. There is much more discus- 
sion in the arithmetic classes than ever I saw in English 
schools. The master says very little. A lifting of the eye- 
brows, or a single word of encouragement or dissent is 
sufficient. The boys state the difficulty, and unravel it 
for themselves. 

' ' Her aim was not to impart knowledge, but to awaken sympathy 
with objects in as far as they were interwoven with the incidents, duties, 
joys and wants of the children's existence." — Leonard and Gertrude 

" Is there a solitary blossom, or outcome of human thought, feeling 
or volition that does not send its taproot deep down into the subsoil 
of early years ? " — Froebel. 

" Only those thoughts come easily and frequently to the mind which 
have at some time made a strong impression, and which possess 
numerous connexions with other thovights." — Herbart. 

" Enrich your teaching with as many relevant associations as 
possible. " — Laurie. 



The theory of the culture-epochs gives us 

R«latioMlilp of ^ . . 

studies to help in a general way in the selection of suit- 
each other. A o y 

able historical matter to put before children. 
The next point to be considered is the association of the 
subjects which the child studies. 

They should be arranged so as to throw light upon 
each other, and this may be done by establishing among 
them a series of close relationships. We do not wish the 
children to acquire a number of loose facts, but we wish 
to give them a "framework whereon to group the facts 
and ideas " they will gain in after life by reading and by 
experience. Hence from the child's earliest years it is 
desirable that order and unity should prevail in the child's 

This idea of establishing relationships among the school 
studies in order to obtain cohesion and unity of thought 

is not new. 

jacotofs Jacotot saw clearly that there are a thou- 

Method. ggjjjj points of attachment between the various 

studies which the skilful teacher will seize upon. His 

great principle was " Tout est dans tout!' ^ He insisted 

' All is in all. 


that the pupil must learn one thing thoroughly in order 
to associate all other knowledge with it. 

rroebei Froebel and his followers were also con- 

Demand.nnity yjjjced that Unity must prevail, hence they 

arrange the children's studies round some particular point, 

such as the season of the year, or an interesting local 


I quote the following schemes of lessons from Students' 
Note-books to illustrate this : 

Scheme of Lessons for the. Month 

Associated O*^ JUNE 

lesions for Bpans and Pea<: 

Young Children. ^eani, ana iria^ 

Age of Children, 6 Years 
I. Literature: — 

1. Jack and the Beanstalk. 

2. Little Pea-blossom, 
n. Object Lessons: — 

1. The pea flower and bean flower compared. 

2. Development of pod and examination of pod. 

3. The pea and bean plants compared. 

4. Shelling and cooking peas. 

These lessons were illustrated by many charming 
sketches in coloured chalks on the blackboard. 

in. Drawing: — 

1. Pea leaf and pea pod. 

2. Opening pod showing peas. 

3. Watering can to water the peas. 

4. Dish to contain the peas. 

Painting pea and bean blossoms were an additional 


IV. Modelling: — 

1. Leaf of the pea. 

2. Pea pod. 

3. Dish to contain the peas. 

4. Cover of pea dish. 

V. Song: — 

The Little Gardener. 

VI. Paper Cutting and Folding : — 
Fences for training the peas. 

VII. Arithmetic: — 

Easy problems in addition and subtraction, using peas 
as concrete objects. 

VIII. Finger Work: — 

Chairs and tables made of softened peas and thin 

Some time before the lessons took place peas and beans 
were put into saucers of water and allowed to sprout. 
The children watched the process, and examined the 
sprouted peas and beans in the Object lessons. 

Reading, writing, and spelling are usually 

Formal Studies ., ,_ , .. ^ .,. -, 

are only Meins Considered formal studies of a distasteful 

to aa End. ,, rn, t -t i i • i • 

nature. " The children love stories and paint- 
ing, but they hate spelling and reading,'' said a teacher of 
an infant school to me recently. 

We must learn to recognise more clearly that reading, 
writing, and spelling are not ends in themselves, but only 
means to an end. We read because we want to get at 
ideas, we write because we wish to express them, and we 
use figures when we wish to calculate. It is only in school 
that any one is required to read merely to pronounce 


words, to write and speak simply to compose sentences, 
and to reckon with figures which stand for nothing. 
Reading, writing, spelling, and figures may be made in- 
strumental to thought from the very beginning. 

Here are examples of sentences composed 

Children's Obser'' 

vationBEipre...dby children during the Pea lessons. They were 


required to examme the sproutmg peas and 
beans, and express their observations in language. 

"This bean is large. It has been in water. Beans 
grow larger in water. The skin is thin. I took the skin 
from my bean, and I found a little sprout inside. To- 
day we planted our beans in a pot." 

The sentences were printed on the blackboard by the 
teacher and used as a reading-lesson. Afterwards the 
children wrote them on their slates. 

The sentences are the result of the children's own obser- 
vations, therefore they represent a natural science lesson j 
but inasmuch as they are expressions of the children's 
thought they are a language lesson. 
MeuiDterest The interest of the children was naturally 

Children, ^gj.^ jjggjj jjj thesc cxcrciscs. They experi- 
enced the same satisfaction which sometimes animates 
maturer minds in using language and writing to express 
their own thoughts and ideas. 

Scheme of LeMone Here is another scheme of lessons for 
cSr another month : 

I. Stories : — 
Paris and the Apple. 
Atalanta and the Apples. 


II. Object Lessons : — 

1. Examination of an Apple and its parts. (Stalk, skin, 

pulp, juice, core, pippins.) 

2. Examination of a pear and its parts. 

3. Apple and pear compared and contrasted. 

4. The apple tree. 

Illustrations of apples and pears, and sections of apples 
and pears were skilfully drawn in coloured chalks on the 
blackboard. The children painted apples and pears and 
fruit trees in connexion with some of the lessons. 

III. So7ig Game : — 

" The Apples O, the Apples O ! " 
The Trees. 
Drawing : — 

1. Wall of the orchard. 

2. Gate of the orchard. 

3. Ladder. 

4. Apple and pear. 

5. Leaves of apple tree. 

6. Barrel for apples. 

Modelling in Clay : — 

1. Apple. 

2. Pear. 

3. Cider cup. 

4. Jam pot. 

Arithmetic : — 

If there are 4 apples in ilb., how many are there in 

If there are 100 apples in one barrel and 150 in an- 
other, how many are there in the two barrels ? 


And examples of a similar nature. Examples involv- 
ing larger numbers were worked on slates. 

Language, Reading, Spelling, Writing:— 

" My apple is round, it has a stalk. The skin is green 
and rosy. Inside are eight pippins. The pippins 
are brown and smooth. We must not eat the core 
of the apple." 

The general opinion of teachers who have 


BiTa. time and attempted to co-ordmate the school studies 

adds Interest. , , . - „ 

shows that not only are time and effort econ- 
omised by so doing, but that the quality of the work is 
better because the child has opportunity for mental activity 
at each step. 

The formal studies, mere mechanical reading, 

Drearinsss of 

unrelieved Poma Writing and arithmetic, have for many years 


been the fetish of our primary schools. To 
work sums with mechanical accuracy, to make no mistakes 
in dictation, and to read without stumbling over new words 
when the inspector comes, this has been in many instances 
the whole duty of the child. Children readily accept the 
ideal the teacher sets up before them, but it is not their 
fault if that ideal be paltry and poor. Children on the 
whole are good and docile if they are reasonably treated, 
and the history of our primary schools for the last twenty- 
five years has shown astonishing results in neatness of 
writing, and mechanical accuracy in arithmetic. Children 
imitate readily, and as a rule they prefer to do as they are 
told when subjected to the disciphne of a big primary 
school ; hence it is not surprising that apparently excellent 
results have been attained. 



Drawing Lessons. 













1 — 















— 1 



■^ ..... 








r L 










h to 







Colouring Lesson. 


































































Vortical Section 

._ 1 J , 1 1 

Horizonui Soctipa 


Colouring Lesson. 


































































XT„ ■ ^„ 






Drawing Lesson. 












II 1 1 


1 1 




7M ft 

r o 


















jf the 



The teacher drew these on the Blackboard, and the children copied them 
on their slates. 


Drawing Lesson. 




The teacher modelled these forms with the class. 


laciofiaterest ^ut the test of knowledge is the use that is 

to Learning. jjj^Jg qj- Jj. Jj^ j^fjgj. jj^^^ -y^g ^^.^ ^^j^ ^^^^ 

many thousands of children that have passed through our 
schools have no taste for reading, that in many instances 
they forget all they learned during their school years, and 
hence the school training has made little or no impression 
on their lives. If these complaints be true, there is cer- 
tainly something lacking in our system. 
Undue Worship of Too frequently it creates a distaste for 
Formal studies, jg^j-^jj^g jjj {j.,g pupil. This is partly because 

the mere formal studies are held in high esteem while 
thought studies are of secondary importance. 

If you can read, write and do sums the whole world of 
knowledge hes before you, is the commonly accepted belief, 
and the child is kept drilling at these studies until his life 
becomes wearisome to him. But the mere discipline of 
drudging at these tasks is valuable for the child, it is urged. 
He must learn to accept disagreeable duties ; it is a salutary 
training for life. 

The child will get training enough in life's hardships 
without educational stumbling-blocks being put in his way. 
" We shall some day learn that when a boy cracks a nut 
he does so because there may be a kernel in it, not because 
the shell is hard," says Dr. McMurray. 

■ =. ji Formal studies are essential : we do not wish 

Formal studies ^ 

Bui=or^!lt''odto 'o disparage them, but they must learn to know 
Thought studies, ^jjgjj. place; they "are the second, not the 
first." If we can set before children worthy ideals, and 
stimulate in them a healthy appetite for learning and books, 
we must do so, and not sicken them with the dry husks 
before they reach the grain within. 


Literature is often served up to children in the form 
of learning notes, " picking out " nouns and verbs, and 
parsing and analysis. "I hate Wordsworth,'' a girl of 
fourteen said to me very emphatically. On enquiring into 
the cause of her hatred, I found that she had parsed and 
analysed "The Brothers," and she never wanted to see 
it again. 

Geography often becomes a dreary series of lists ot 
names of capes, bays, rivers, and mountains, and History 
a dismal outline of dates, kings, and battles. We must 
give the children more than mere bony skeletons of facts, 
we must endow them with thought, life, and vitality. The 
teacher who drags out weary days on routine's treadmill 
will never be able to make the school studies " full rich, 
throbbing with the life of the world." Nor will the teacher 
who pins his faith to text-books and examination tests be 
able to arouse the child's interest in the wonders of the 
world around him, and to impress upon him the " moral 
significance of human history." 

"All instruction should graft the most essential parts of its subject 
firmly into the very being of the human mind ; then join on the less 
essential gradually, but uninterruptedly, to the most essential, and main- 
tain all parts of the subject in one living, proportionate whole." — 

' ' Facts and ideas have a real and useful influence over the mind 
only when the mind systematizes and co-ordinates them with other 
acts and ideas as they are produced." — Guyon. 

' ' Pour water rapidly into a vessel with a narrow neck, and little 
enters ; pour slowly and but little at a time, and the vessel is finally 

filled." — QUINTILIAN. 

" The time object of intellectual education is to instil, with the least 
possible effort, the greatest number of generous and fruitful ideas." — 

' ' When one finds in certain courses of study, history of the Middle 
Ages, reading from Herodotus, geography of America, and German 
literature since Lessing, side by side, one ought to be glad if the 
youth does not trouble himself about these things, but withdrawing 
his interest, devotes his energies to something else." — Rein. 

' ' Link the teaching of the new with facts already known with 
which the new has a real relation of likeness or unlikeness, so that 
the growth of knowledge may be an organic growth. " — Laurie. 



As we have seen, the association of studies is 

Herbartlan ... 

Concentration HO new idea, Dut it has remained for the Her- 

of studies. , . , , , , ., , . . 

bartians to work it out in detail and put it into 
practice throughout the entire school course. In their 
scheme for the Concentration of Studies, those studies 
which require mental activity on the part of the child 
predominate, while the mere formal studies are second- 
ary. The latter, however, are not neglected, though they 
are not unduly worshipped. What the Herbartians call 

Concentration is concerned with the natural 

Natural Rela- . . , • t • , i 

tions Exist be- rclations which exist between the various 

tween studies. ,.,_,, , 

Studies. There are many natural connexions 
between literature and history, history and geography, 
geography and natural science, natural science and ma- 
thematics j moreover, drawing and architecture can be 
used to intensify the interest in history and literature, and 
singing can serve to stimulate this interest, while geometry 
can help to elucidate geography and natural science. 

That these natural relations exist every reasonable teacher 
will admit, but we rarely attempt to reckon with them in 
arranging our school courses. 

The Herbartians insist on bringing out all possible 
natural relationships in their schemes of study. 



Psychology shows that isolated ideas are 
°°are Easily"' feebly imprcssed and easily forgotten, because 

"*° "■ they are " writ in water " as it were and cannot 
endure. Therefore isolated facts taught in an inconsequent 
fashion have no lasting influence on the mind of the child. 
Again, the child must make a new effort each time to take 
in a totally new idea, and the difficulty of doing this 
entails waste of energy, and results very often in his only 
half understanding the new matter. These vague ideas 
half understood are easily obliterated. We are all ready 
to admit that a small amount of knowledge closely 
articulated and thoroughly understood is worth more 
than a large amount loosely related and only half under- 
stood, yet teachers rarely arrange the subjects so 
that they shall bear upon and throw light upon each 

It is not uncommon to find such incon- 
Mom in Schemes gruities m a school time-table as the followmg — 
History of Wellington, Geography ot China, 
Reading, Drake's Voyages, Literature, Julius CcBsar, and 
Science Lessons on Artesian Wells. The children study 
all these at the same time, and disharmony of thought must 
prevail. It is the duty of the teacher, says Dr. Rein, to 
convert such a confusa varietas lectionum into an ordinaia 

order must ^^ ^ conceivable expedients should be de- 

Keign. vised in order that energy may be economised 
and intensity in the results of instruction be attained 
through unity in the foundations, association of related 
materials, and the combination of mutually complemen- 
tary elements." 


One readily sees various advantages in con- 

Concentratlon . _ . • 

Increases Inter- centrating the suDjccts 01 study : interest is 

est and gets rid . , . . j_ i. *. 

ofsnperiiuous mcreascd, — not merely transitory interest, but 

Matter. . . , 

true, permanent interest, memory is strength- 
ened, and a logical memory is developed, and the pressure 
of an overwhelming number of subjects is taken off the 

Concentration will help us to proportion our subjects 
according to natural relationships existing between them 
and to get rid of quantities of irrelevant subject-matter 
which text-books are constantly offering. The Herbartians 
urge the concentration of school studies on ethical and 
psychological grounds. 

Ethical, because strong and effective action 

Ethical Value , . i i i ^i V 

ofooncentra- and consistent conduct depend upon the unity 

tion of Studies. - , . , » /- i • ^ , 

of the mind. A man of strong and consistent 
character decides promptly and resolutely because there 
are many close connexions between the ideas in his mind ; 
but if his mental content were made up of loose and 
unattached experiences, he would find it impossible to 
call them properly together in order to arrive at a de- 

"As soon as we admit that it is largely ideas control 
conduct, says Dr. McMurray, ... we see the necessity 
of great unity among one's ideas in order to secure safe, 
consistent, and firm action." " The educator," says Prof. 
Rein, "must endeavour to collect the spiritual forces of 
the pupil in order that they shall not be dissipated, but 
through their concentration may take effect in an energetic 
and powerful activity. No moral character is conceivable 
without such concentration of forces." 


To understand the psychological grounds, we 

Psychological '■ ^ . 

Eeasonfor must remember that the Herbartians believe 


that the contents of the mind are not original ; 
the individual brings with him tendencies and dispositions, 
but the mind to begin with has no original activity. 
"The ego^ is not an original but a developing entity; 
hence it is also a changeable being." "The mind is a 
self-active, concentrated force," which is ever striving after 
unity. Its tendency is to simplify and unify all the various 
ideas which it gains from experience and intercourse. In- 
struction must step in and assist in this unification, for we 
overestimate the " constructive activity " of the young 
mind if we assume that it is capable of establishing all con- 
nexions unaided. Even in grown men and women the 
concentrative powers of the mind are not strong enough to 
produce unity of consciousness. 

" Unity of consciousness is the primitive foundation of 
character," therefore " instruction must be directed towards 
establishing this foundation." Heterogeneous ideas and 
disconnected thoughts are obstacles in the way of forming 
unity in the child's mind. One of the most important 
duties, therefore, the school has to fulfil, is to bring all the 
child's experiences into close relationship, to connect the 
home-life and school-life with the child's studies, so that 
harmony and unity may result. 

Having decided that studies are to be con- 

Ihe Herbartian , _ . , ^ , , , . 

Theory of centratcd, the question before us is how to do 

Concentration, . i.«-ii' • i . 1,1* 

it. Much discussion has arisen around this 
point, which we cannot enter upon here, Ziller's method 

1 Dr. Rein. 


of concentration is usually adopted by the Herbartians. 
The core or centre of instruction is chosen from the 
material which has the greatest ethical content. This con- 
centrating centre, therefore, around which all other studies 
are to be grouped, and with which they are to be co- 
ordinated, must be the humanistic material — history, litera- 
ture and art. These educate the ideas on humanity, they 
train the judgment, morality, and taste, the religious 
sentiment, and the individual and social sympathies. This 
centre, which the Germans call Gesinnungs-stoff, or material 
for training character, is pre-eminent in the course of 
instruction J the other subjects are subordinate, inasmuch 
as they follow its lead. I will first give some details from 
German time-tables showing Concentrating Schemes, and 
then give particulars concerning some experiments worked 
out with English children. 





Character Forming 


Art Instruction, 










tion and 





A collection 

of epic fairy 


B . 




•0 a It, 
g QJ 



u en <U 





Practice in 
speaking and 



c <u 
•2 5 




0) u 




g i 1» 

MB 2-2 

a IS- 




in the 


Reading in 

connection with 

Sobinson and 




Readings in 

connection with 

the lessons. 










■5 °° 










c u 

■s .^ 


M . 

S i^ 


.1.(2 . 

is A 

a St3 s 


S H n A4 





History to 

Otto I, 

styles in 






Life of 

Otto I. to 
Rudolph of 

Gothic styles 
in neigh- 


Life of 



Rudolph to 

30 Years 


period from 
Middle Ages 
to Rennais- 





30 Years 


to 1870-71. 


to Modern 




















I to lO 




Addition and 

S §b 



(School garden) 



3 a 

forest life, etc. 

§'■8 a 

3,3 sT 

fn C «! 1- 


C W-"' 




lO to lOO 

c - S 
o -^ o 





u _ri w 

and Division. 

S S'S 

(U - 

Only easy 

c Ma 




Valley of the 

Saale Valley 

Diiificult ex- 

ri 3 rt 

'S . 

Saale and 


amples of 


Unstrut and 





and Division. 



Hunting and ^ 



Danube, South 


pastoral life. 


The four Com- 




animals of the 


pound Rules. 

S n 


hunt and cattle. 


Concrete and 


Wood and 








° s 

•= 8 


^ - 


North and 


Cultivated ' 

Six and eight- 

Application of 



Middle Ger- 


lands. Fruit 

sided figures. 

the rules. 

■^ m 


many, Weser, 






Elbe, Oder. 


Cone, Sphere, 

2 " 








Alps, Italy, 


Villages, Small 

Drawing and 





Towns, Build- 





ings, Industries, 






Portions of the 

Luther towns. 

Large Towns, 


Application of 

d S 

Earth outside 


Water as a 

drawing and 

the rules to 




means of com- 


ordinary affairs 




of sohd 

of life. 



Laws of health. 


Rule of Three. 



Leipsic and 

Large Towns, ' 



■^ a 




Electricity, and 

of geometical 



France, Russia, 


figures and 


England, the 

Laws of health 

bodies with 



and Sanitation. 

reference to 

S " 

Empire, and 





vations made during walks, visits to workshops, and school journey. 

" The good school is everywhere the same, whether it be moderately 
large as the grammar school, or far-reaching as the high school and 
college, or as small and narrow as the elementary and village school. 
It always nourishes the same interests ; it always leads to thinking as 
well as observation ; it always points to the beautiful in the world and 
the sublime above it ; it always awakens sympathetic participation for 
domestic and civic weal and woe. " — Herbart. 

" If a pupil of the elementary school by the time he is twelve years 
old is able to acquire both complete skill, as well as proper emphasis in 
reading . . . and gains in his fourteenth year a. proper hand- 
writing, he has done well enough, that is as regards reading and 
writing. However the development of his conceptions, the broadening 
of his mental range through the geography of the country and the topo- 
graphy of the region where he lives, together with knowledge of the 
natural products and the intercourse of men that live there ; exercises 
in mental arithmetic and measuring of lines and planes, vivacity ot 
religious feelings, and the entire preparation for the entrance in the 
church community — all this sets the elementary school a great task, be- 
side which it cannot think of merely teaching reading and writing as 
rapidly as possible. "— Herbart. 

' ' The true worth of instruction — that is to say its vitalizing in- 
fluence on the scholar's mind — depends less than is commonly supposed 
upon the particular subject through which the mind is approached, 
and more upon the stimulative method in which the mind is roused. 
School curricula, no doubt, need to be in some cases extended, and in 
others restricted, as regards the number of subjects to be taught to the 
particular scholar at the same time. But it is, after all, not so much 
in the remodelling of curricula as in the improvement of methods . . . 
that educational progress must in future consist." — Royal Commissioti 
on Secondary Education. 


concentrated schemes worked out with classes in 
an english primary school. 

Robinson Crusoe Concentration Scheme. 
Standard I. 

These lessons are taken from students' note-books. They 
were given to Standard I. children in a Board School; the 
age of the children being seven years. 

History of Robinson Crusoe. 
I. Literature and ^^ Robinson's home j his father and mother, 

language. ^jjj jjjg gga-shore. 

2. Robinson watches the ships unloading in the harbour, 
and speculates on foreign parts. 

3. Robinson at school. He dislikes lessons and wishes 
to go to sea. 

4. Robinson goes on board the ship with his friend. 
Sails down river. 

5. Robinson's voyage. Sea sickness. Storm. 

6. The shipwreck. Robinson's escape. 

7. Robinson's first night on the island. He sleeps in a 
tree ; he hunts for breakfast. 

8. Robinson climbs a hill and finds he is on an island. 

9. Robinson visits the ship and brings back many useful 


10. Robinson finds a cave and makes a house. 
This series of lessons were given by students in training. 
They followed the general plan adopted in the German 

I. The sea. Robinson's home was on the 

II. Object Lessons. 


2. A ship from foreign parts. (What was it likely to 
contain ?) 

3. Further details of the ship. (Anchor and sails.) 

4. The Union Jack. (Robinson's ship carried this flag.) 

5. Lifebelt and lifebuoy. (In connexion with the 

6. Lifeboat. (In connexion with shipwreck.) 

7. Shell-fish (oysters and mussels). (Robinson seeks 

8. An island ^ 

. , /In connexion with Robinson's experi- 

. \ ences of islands, rafts, and caves. 

10. A cave ) ' ' 

ni. Drawing -A- scrics of objccts were drawn in connexion 
Lessons. ^jj.j^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ object Icssons ; A boat, 

an oar, a ship, an anchor, the Union Jack (this was painted), 
lifebelt, lifebuoy, an oyster, a cave, an island, Robinsons' 
IV. Manual I- -A- model of the sea-shore. Apparatus : 
Training, rpj^^ ^^^^^ %zx\A, pebbles, and dried seaweed. 

2. Cutting out and making the Union Jack in coloured 

3. A model of Robinson's island. Apparatus : Tin tray, 
clay, sand, moss, and stones. 

4. Robinson's house. This was an elaborate model, in 
which the children took great delight. Pieces of rock 


formed the cave. A tent was built with pieces of calico for 
sail-cloth. The fence was made of twigs and string, and 
the children made a tiny ladder for Robinson to chrab the 

5. Robinson's pottery gave an opportunity for lessons in 
clay modelling, in which rough clay pots were made. 

Passages from the child's Robinson Crusoe 
and from a general Reader on the matters dis- 
cussed in object lessons. 

Simple composition on the subject of the 
^' lessons. Here is one composition. The child- 
ren framed the sentences which the teacher wrote on the 
blackboard and the class copied afterwards. 

" Robinson spent his first night in a tree. In the morn- 
ing he was hungry, but he saw nothing around him but 
grass and trees without fruit. On the sea-shore he found 
some shell-fish, which he ate." 

The usual addition and subtraction sums. 

VII. Arithmetic. , . , , , 

Many mental examples and simple problems 
dealt with Robinson, 
vm. Staging Suitable sea-songs were chosen, " I am mon- 


arch of all I survey." 

Method rouowed ^ detailed lesson of this series will be found 
"'"'°''=^=="""- in a later chapter. 

The lessons lasted about forty-five minutes each. The 
teacher did not attempt to relate the story, she devel- 
oped it with the children. She put leading questions 
and drew out all the children's experiences. Being town 
children, their experiences of the sea-shore were very 
limited, and there was much to correct and amplify. The 
drawing and manual training lessons were greatly enjoyed. 



The children entered completely into Robinson's life, and 
appreciated all his difficulties, and were eager to suggest 
means of overcoming them. 

Under ordinary conditions the story of Robinson Crusoe 
would be the leading feature in the work of a whole year. 
Our series lasted about six weeks, and we only had the 
children occasionally. In comparing the English children 
with the German classes I have seen studying Robinson 
Crusoe, I was convinced that the eagerness and interest was 
as keen among the children here as in the German schools. 
I was sorry I could not continue the adventures of Robin- 
son further. One easily sees what a wealth of material there 
is in the further development of the story. 

Robinson's discovery of corn, and of fire, his attempts at 
making pottery, his clothing, his little farm, offer endless 
matter for famihar discussions with the children. 

The Spanish Armada Concentration Scheme. 

Standard VI. 

These lessons were given by seven students during one 
term, to a class of boys and girls in Standard VI., whose 
ages varied from 12 to 14 years. The same students had 
given the series of Columbus lessons mentioned in a later 
chapter to the same class the previous term. In choos- 
ing this particular period we considered its fitness not only 
from an ethical standpoint, but whether it had sufficient 
literary material connected with it, and whether it afforded 
us scope in the Natural Science direction. We considered 
the subject itself, the defeat of the Spanish Armada, an 
excellent topic to put before English children. The period 
is one of the most glorious in English history, both with 


regard to national achievement and individual effort. The 
exploits of Drake and his fellows illustrate that spirit of 
daring which has always characterised English sailors, and 
the sentiment of patriotism which it is always desirable to 
encourage in the child is admirably fostered in this aspect 
of the Elizabethan age. It may be enforced by example 
as well as by precept in the story of the self-sacrifice of 
private individuals, and in the loyalty which caused the 
English Roman Catholics to put their duty to their country 
before their religion. 

The literature around the subject is no less interesting. 
Macaulay's fragment forms a stimulating introduction to 
the story of the fight. Tennyson's ballad, " The Revenge," 
though not concerned with the Armada itself, treating in 
fact of a later incident, is eminently suitable for incorpora- 
tion into the scheme. Its hero had fought with distin- 
guished success against the Armada, and the exploit 
described in the poem is one of the most daring ever 
performed even in that adventurous age. In the region 
of prose there is even more suitable material. The account 
of Drake's voyages in Hakluyt, the description of the 
famous game of bowls in Westward. Ho I and the picture 
of the fight in Mr. Froude's History, are all excellent read- 
ing material, 

I Eistor ^- Comparison between England and Spain 

Leasona. jjj ^]-,g sixteenth century and in present day. 

2. Dealings of England and Spain with the Netherlands. 

3. England attacks Spanish colonies and treasures. 

4. Minor causes of hostiUty. 

5. Immediate cause of war. 

6. Preparations for war in both countries. 


7. The fight and defeat of the Spanish Armada. 

8. The results to England and Spain of this defeat. 
Authorities consulted for the preparation of these les- 
sons : — 

1. Froude's History of England, vol xii. 

2. Gardiner's Student's History, vol. ii. 

3. Queen Elizabeth, by E. S. Beesley. 

4. Defeat of the Spanish Armada (Intro, to vol. i.), 
being the State papers published by the Navy Record's 
Society. Edited by J. Knox Laughton. 

n Hutory '• Sources of Spanish wealth in the sixteenth 

Reading LessoDB, rgn tiiry 

2. How the English sailors " vexed the King of Spain." 

3. Drake's voyage round the world. 

4. Amyas Leigh's journey, from Westward Ho ! 

5. The fate of the Armada after the fight, from Froude's 
Spanish Story of the Armada. 

Tennyson's " Revenge.'' 

HI. Literature. 

Macaulay s " Armada. 
LeMons: ^- How an English seaman dealt with a 

"^'"""°«''" great danger (stanzas i to 3). 

2. How Sir Richard Grenville met the foe (stanzas 4 to 


3. Stanzas 8 to 10. 

4. Stanzas 10 to 14. 

5. How the news of the Spanish fleet spread 

" The Armada." 

quickly over England. Explanation of poem. 

6. Reading the poem. 

n orammar Lcssons OH Dietaphor, simile, and personifi- 

and Composition, r a fion 


Examples taken from the literature : — 
"And a pinnace like a fluttered bird came flying from far 

So Lord Howard past away with five ships of war that day, 
Till he melted like a cloud in the silent summer heaveii." 
"Till like volcanoes flared to heaven the stormy hills of 

"And haughtily the trumpets peal and gaily dance the 

"With his huge sea-castle heaving.'' 

" Took the breath from our sails and we stayed." 

" And the lion lay there dying, and they yielded to the 

" Look how ihe Hon of the sea lifts up his ancient crown." 
" And with one start and with one cry the royal city woke." 
"And the red glare on Skiddaw roused the burghers of 

The children wrote essays on various points 
omposition. .^ ^^^ lessons. "The beacon fires of England" 

and " The first Englishman's voyage round the world " 
were attractive subjects. 

Method. — The teacher revised the story with 

TMa Composition 

required three the children first, and the heads were written 

Lessons : 

1 introdnetion, on the blackboard. The heads of Drake s voy- 

2 Essay Writing, 

3 Correction and age Were as follows : — 


I. Reasons for the voyage. 

2. From Plymouth across the Atlantic. 

3. Through Magellan's Straits. 

4. Raids on Spanish towns and treasure ships. 

5. Return voyage. 

6. Arrival home. 


A great many interesting details were brought 

Drawing. , . ° 

out in the drawing lessons. Sword hilts, 
shields, pikes, the naval standard of England, the 
Spanish flag, and the various kinds of beacons used, 
were described and drawn. 

A contrast was made between a Spanish galleon and an 
English war-ship of the sixteenth century. These were 
afterwards sketched on the blackboard, and the children 
were required to copy them. 

The Atlantic and Pacific Ocean, colonies of 

Oeography. _ . . 

Spain, Spain, the Netherlands, the coast line 
and kinds of rocks of England, the beacon heights, the 
English Channel, the Bay of Biscay, Currents, Winds and 
Storms, were some of the subjects included in the scheme. 

The students made a huge relict map in clay of Western 
Europe, including the British Isles, Spain, France, and por- 
tions of the Netherlands. This model was used constantly 
throughout all the lessons. The mountains of the British 
Isles were all marked, and in the lesson on Beacon Fires a 
tiny piece of wax candle was set alight on each, and the 
position of the Spanish Armada was shown in a fleet of tiny 
paper boats coming up the Channel. 

Natural ^ ^^'^^ choice from a whole series of subjects 

Bci«nce. could be made in connexion with these lessons, 
e.g., Gravitation, Ship's Compass, Magnetism and Electri- 
city, kinds of Rocks and Minerals, Storms, Gunpowder, 
Gold and Silver Mining, Study of Heavens, Study of 
currents of the Ocean, are all appropriate subjects in con- 
nexion with Drake's voyages, Spanish treasures, and the 
fight and defeat of the Armada. The lessons prepared for 
our course were — 


The Beacon Fires. 

The Composition of Flame. 


Telegraph Communication. 
The development from the rude stacks of wood used in 
primitive beacons to the pole and iron-brander, containing 
a tar-barrel, was sketched. This led to a comparison with 
modern methods— Lighthouses, and Telegraphic Communi- 
cation. Lessons on the Nature of Flame, the Luminosity 
of Flame, and the Safety Lamp were also given. These 
lessons involved many experiments which were performed 
with the children. 

This subject necessarily follows a logical 

Arithmetic. . , . 

sequence of its own, but as mathematics pre- 
sents the formal side of Natural Science, connections are 
constantly occurring. In working out problems of latitude, 
for example, figures are required. The children in the 
present instance are interested in the doings of Drake, and 
their interest is increased if they are required to make the 
same kind of calculations that the statesmen and navigators 
would have to make in Drake's day. It may be urged that 
these questions are not practical, but the calculations which 
Drake and his men had to make every day are more prac- 
tical than the problems concerning the impersonal A and 
B, so familiar to the arithmetic student. 

The state papers of the Armada period give a fund of 
information concerning the manning of the ships, the rate 
of pay of the men, the necessary provisions, the prices of 
the food, the variations of diet, " Meat days " and " Fish 
days," also details concerning the weight of the guns, the 
amount of shot necessary, and the size of the ships. To 


make actual calculations from these details is a valuable 
exercise in itself, but it is rendered more so when these 
calculations are compared with similar details of the pre- 
sent day. 

The rule of proportion is the stage in arithmetic at. which 
the children have arrived^ therefore suitable comparisons 
can be easily made of relative prices, sizes of ships, and 
rates of sailing. These facts become more striking if the 
teacher presents like calculations concerning a modern war 

The following are some of the examples worked. The 
figures are actually taken from the State papers of the 
time : — 

" If the cost of provisions for one day for the 240 men 
in The Revenge was £fi 5^., how much would it cost for the 
420 men of the Ark ? " 

" If the wages of a sailor were 42^. for three months, 
how much would he receive for five months ? 

The Armada will not aid the child in learning Propor- 
tion. The only way to master the rule will be to take it as 
pure mathematics and proceed according to the " law of 
successive clearness." But the children may be led to a 
general rule in Arithmetic by having their curiosity 
aroused as to the way of performing calculations quite 
likely to be required in ordinary life; and these lessons 
formed an interesting introduction to a discussion of 
ratios mathematically treated. 

"There is but one natural method for all sciences, arts, and lan- 
guages." — COMENIUS. 

" Percepts without concepts are blind ; concepts without percepts 
are empty." — Kant. 

" There can be no system, no order, no relationship without clear- 
ness in single things." — Herbart. 

" Strange as the arrangement of instruction according to the formal 
steps may appear at first sight, yet it is by no means entirely new. It 
asserts itself in every good lesson in a greater or less degree, only, the 
mere empiricist bases it not upon psychology, which must permeate the 
entire process of learning, but rather upon a certain instinct of tact, 
which he has acquired by long experience, the reasonableness of which, 
however, he is unable to demonstrate. . . . Every step in the lesson is 
exactly prescribed by psychological laws solidly established. A highly 
important matter, which previously had been left to the care of a feel- 
ing of happy tact, has, by one stroke, been brought into such clearness, 
that it is capable of illuminating the entire method of instruction." 
— Prof. Rein. 

" It is a chief business of education to pass from distinctly perceived 
individual notions to clear general notions."' — Pestalozzi. 

" It is, perhaps, the most frightful gift which an evil genius makes to 
his age ; knowledge, without capacity to do." — Pestalozzi. 

' ' The humblest school-science consists of generalizations, or aims at 
them. Unless the pupil is led, step by step, to approach these through 
particular observations, full and exact, the conclusion, be it in- the 
form of a generalisation or a formula, is not knowledge any more than 
the case which contains a diamond is the diamond." — Laurie. 



Herbarfa ^E havc Considered the selection and articuk- 
Btepa. jj^^ ^j. gyjjjg(,j. jnatter, we must now discuss 
the method of presenting it to the child's mind. Know- 
ledge must pass through certain stages before the mind can 
clearly apprehend and assimilate it. These stages are 
called by the Herbartians the " five formal steps." 

According to Herbart these steps are, — 

_,, (Analysis. 

Clearness J , . 
( Synthesis. 




Rein's Five Fvof. Rciu and others have developed Her- 

^^^^'- bart's ideas, and put them into practice in 

the schools. 

Rein sums up the five steps as follows, — 

1. Preparation (Vorbereitung). 

2. Presentation (Darbietung). 

3. Association (Verkniipfung). 

4. Formulation, or Generalization (Zusammenfassung). 

5. Application (Anwendung). 



These steps are not new. Many experienced teachers 
will say they only indicate the natural method of teaching. 

They are natural because each stage follows definite 
psychological laws. 

The material in each school subject is 

Method Wholes 

containing a mapped out into a number of convenient 

general truth. 

sections, each of which is called a Method 
Whole (Einheit) because it contains one clear general 
truth. In working through the stages of the lesson the 
pupils arrive at this truth for themselves. In formal gram- 
mar and arithmetic the general truth is a definition or a 
rule, and can often be reached in one lesson of reasonable 
length. In history, language, and geography, the general 
truth may have an ethical or political signification, and 
it may require several lessons to arrive at it. Therefore, it 
is impossible to give isolated and unrelated lessons. I 
have heard a teacher dispatch the Spanish Armada in one 
lesson of twenty minutes. ^ 

Her notes were neatly written out and arranged under 
three headings, — 

(a) Causes. 

{l>) Action. 
(c) Results. 

She spent five minutes on each of these heads, and she 
carefully kept a whole five minutes for Recapitulation. 

Her lesson was said to be a success, and in so far as she 
selected a few meagre but striking facts, arranged them 
neatly, and got through them quickly, and made all the 
children sit still the while ; perhaps it was, but the less said 
about the influence of such a lesson on the minds of the 
children the better. 


Begin with par- Most thoughtful tcachers agree generally that 
"""tptothi''* the method of beginning a lesson with indivi- 

gensrai trutn. ^^^j notioHS and leading up to a generalization 

is the true method. 

"From the particular to the general," " From the simple 
to the complex," " From the concrete to the abstract," 

"From the percept to the concept," are commonplaces 

to all students who have glanced through the pages 
of any work on the theory of teaching. It is now 
recognised that the older method of teaching, which 
consisted of stating rules and definitions, to be com- 
mitted to memory, was putting the cart before the horse. 
Children have great facility in using words and repeating 
propositions that formulate knowledge, and the teacher 
is constantly deceived. Herbert Spencer expresses this 
forcibly. "General formulas which men have devised 
to express groups of details, and which have sever- 
ally simplified their conceptions by uniting many facts 
into one fact, they have supposed must simplify the con- 
ception of a child also. They have forgotten that a 
generalisation is simple only in comparison with the whole 
mass of particular truths it comprehends ; that it is more 
complex than any one of these truths taken singly j that 
only after many of these single truths have been acquired, 
does the generalization ease the memory and help the 
reason ; and that, to a mind not possessing these single 
truths, it is necessarily a mystery." Our theory of the five 
formal steps follows the approved method, it presents 
many facts, and finally unites them into one fact. 

The lesson is introduced to the child by 

statement I 

the Aim. ^ Statement of the aim. This is important. 


The aim is stated because the child must clearly know 
what he is going to do. The method of introducing 
the lesson by a series of mysterious questions only con- 
fuses the child, and often puts him on the wrong track. 
An Inspector of Training Colleges once told me of a 
young man who, in introducing a lesson on the powers 
of the magnet, proceeded to throw small iron nails about 
the room, He then asked his class how he was to find 
them, and appeared annoyed when they gave him the very 
obvious reply, " Get a candle." He expected them to say, 
"Get a magnet"; and as they did not realize his expecta- 
tions his lesson suffered. 

Again, a clear statement of the aim arouses in the child 
expectation, which is a favourable condition for promoting 
real interest ; it also tends to drive out of the child's mind 
irrelevant ideas, and bring into prominence all relevant 
ideas connected with the subject. " We shall now consider 
the dealings of England and Spain with the Netherlands," 
clearly stated at the beginning of the lesson, brings up 
the child's ideas connected with England, Spain, and the 

The children are identified with the teacher in the search 
for knowledge when the aim is well stated, and their co-op- 
eration and activity is enlisted in the problem before them. 
step I "^^s ^^^^ ^^^P '^ Preparation ; here the child's 

Preparation, jjjjjj^j jg prepared to receive the new matter. 
Our knowledge depends as much upon what is within us 
as upon what is without us ; hence the teacher's labours in 
forcing new knowledge from without are wasted, unless 
the related ideas and the attitude of the minds before him 
are favourable to the reception of the new. 


Apperception. What the Herbartians call Apperception ex- 
plains how the mind receives new knowledge. 
Apperception may be generally defined as the power of 
understanding new ideas by means of related old ideas 
already in the mind. The story of Alfred and the cakes, 
" although not a noteworthy historical anecdote, serves to 
fix the name of the King in the child's mind, who would 
not so easily remember the Peace of VVedmore. Eating he 
knows more about than the making of treaties." 

The familiar is understandable, and we are interested 
in it. 

Hence we recognise again the value of concentrating 
the child's studies ; the connexions established in this way 
assist the apperceiving powers of the mind. 

The first step then consists in calling into consciousness 
the ideas which bear upon the subject in hand, of separat- 
ing the consequent from the inconsequent ideas, and of 
arranging them. This is called collecting and arranging 
the apperceiving masses. 

" The apperceiving ideas must frequently be collected 
and arranged. If we passed the material but once, and 
in the order in which it would occur by chance, many 
contradictions would remain unreconciled, and many prin- 
cipal thoughts would not seldom be lost in a mass of in- 

The old knowledge must be constantly used in order 
to find points of attachment for the new. Knowledge 
which lies unheeded in the background of the mind, and 
is never called into activity, becomes lifeless. That is why 
children forget what they have learned so soon after they 
leave school, and have no curiosity or desire to learn further. 


The information they received may have enabled them 
to pass examination tests, but it never entered into com- 
binations with other masses of ideas in their mind. " Un- 
less the mind has leisure to work by itself on the 'stuff' 
or matter which is prescribed by the teacher, the thinking 
faculty upon which all progress depends will be paralysed, 
and dead knowledge will be substituted for living. The 
mind will have no power of expanding from within, 
for it will become a passive recipient of knowledge, only 
able to discharge again what has been stuffed into it, and 
quite powerless to make fresh combinations. Cram is the 
rapid acquisition of a great deal of knowledge. Learning 
so acquired has less educational value than the public be- 
lieve, for it does not promote, but rather tends to destroy, 
the active and constructive powers of the mind." 

Preparation then calls up the old ideas as living forces to 
seize upon the new, as Lazarus says, "The old ideas stand 
like well-armed men in the inner stronghold of the mind, 
ready to sally forth and overcome or make serviceable 
whatever shows itself at the portals of sense." 

"If^ the preparation has been of the right kind, the 
reception and appropriation of the new will take place 
with ease and certainty without lengthy explanations and 
interrogations, so that the pupil according to the laws of 
psychology feels himself mentally exalted, the instruction 
thus proves educative.'' 

step n This step consists in laying the new matter 

preBsntation. bgfore the pupils. The manner of presenting 
the new matter depends upon the subject. 

' Charles Ufer. 


In History, Literature and Geography lessons the matter 
is related by the teacher, or developed by means of a 
series of skilful questions. The latter calls for more skill 
on the part of the teacher and more thought on the part of 
the child. The pupil is not told what Philip of Spain did 
in certain circumstances, but he is asked v/hat Philip was 
likely to do. 

In Grammar and Arithmetic, examples are considered 
which lead up to the definition or rule we are aiming at. 

In an Object lesson, the object is put before the child 
and he is directed how to examine it. The problem is 
presented in Science and Mathematics, and teacher and 
pupils work through the experiments or calculations to- 
gether which lead them to establish their law or generaliza- 

One thing at a time is the ruling principle of this 
part of the lesson. The whole cannot be given to the 
pupil in a mass, else he would gain only a misty general 
impression, which is valueless. Single points must be 
presented, mastered, reflected upon, and summed up and 
stated by the pupils before another point is touched upon. 
What the Herbartians call the law of successive clearness 
demands that the matter be divided into " small logically 
connected sections" and the children shall concentrate 
their undivided attention upon each of these sections 
separately, and reflect upon each point until it is mastered. 
As Lazarus says : " Thinking requires time, it is therefore 
a great pedagogical mistake if teachers — as is now gener- 
ally done — urge their pupils to answer rapidly, and praise 
those who immediately have an answer ready. This causes 
everything to be lowered to a mere effort of mechanical 



memory. The pupil must have time for individual contem- 
plation, for deep and energetic thought-labour." 

In the first lesson on Flame, the presentation was ar- 
arranged in three divisions : 

I. Experimejits : i. Show a burning candle. 

2. Show Bunsen burner with luminous 
Collected observations from the class : 
(a) The flame has two differently-coloured parts. 
{V) They are conical in form. 
Recapitulation. A Flame consists of two separate cones. 

II. Experiments with Siphon tube and Candle flame. 
Observations collected. 

Recapitulation. The outer cone consists of burning gas, 
the inner of unburned gas. 

III. Experiments with pieces ot paper and wire gauze, 
and a match with its head inside the inner cone. 

Observations collected. 

Recapitulation. The outer cone is hotter than the inner 
The general recapitulation of the whole. 

A flame consists of two cones, the outer cone consists ot 
burning gas and is hot, the inner cone consists of unburned 
gas and is comparatively cool. 

When the whole has been studied, an entire recapitula- 
tion is required from the pupils in their own words, for 
knowledge is not a possession unless it can be expressed in 
the words of the owner. A fair amount of drilling is 
required to fix the facts in the children's minds. The 
necessity of this kind of drill was recognised by the Jesuits 


as seen in their favourite maxim, "Repetitio mater 

At the end of the second step we have completed the 
first psychological process, that of apperception, but only 
half the task of teaching is done. We must rise from the 
individual to the general. With the third step we begin 
the process of abstraction. Certain facts are fixed in the 
child's mind, and from these facts we must rise to the law 
or cause which governs them, without this our lesson is 
meaningless, for " percepts without concepts are blind." 

ste m '^^^ ^^^^^ ^'■^ given, and the teacher proceeds 

AsBociation. jq discuss them with the children, and to 
compare and contrast them with known facts in order to 
lead the pupils to form the general truth for themselves. 
All teachers are familiar with the kind of questions which 
lead the children to grasp the definition of an adjective or 
a rule in arithmetic. 

In a series of lessons on the Victoria Cross, after the 
student had described the Cross and told the story of 
Rorke's Drift, she associated the story with that of General 
Gordon, and led the pupils to see the grandeur of forgetting 
oneself in doing one's duty. 

Now we come to the generalization; for 
Generalisation language is nccessary to help to fix and sym- 

or Fornmlation. , t .i i i i t i 

bolize the general truth the child has been able 
to reach. In the Victoria Cross lessons, the children were 
all ready to suggest such generalizations as "We must 
face danger for the sake of duty." After listening to 
various formulations from the children, the teacher said 
they all had grasped the right idea, but she would give 
it to them in the words of an English poet : 


"Not once or twice in our rough island-story, 
The path of duty was the way of glory." 

This summed up precisely what she had intended to 
convey in the lessons. She wrote the lines on the 
blackboard, and the children learned them. In this step 
the law, truth, or rule, having been clearly brought out 
by skilful questions, it is formulated in such a way that 
the whole group of details is expressed in this formulation. 
"Unless we formulate thought to ourselves in words, we 
are not, strictly speaking, thinking, but only striving to 
think, struggling with thought, — 'licking,' as Montaigne 
says, ' the formless embryo.' " 

After the formula is obtained the fifth step 
Appuciuon. demands that it should be applied. We have 
arrived at our rule or principle, and the child 
must apply it. As Dr. Radestock says, " Children cannot 
be taught by maxims, which continually slip from their 
memory. Whatever we believe they must do, we should 
strengthen them in doing by unwearied practice, whenever 
the opportunity offers, and, if possible, create opportunities 

After the formulation on the Victoria Cross lessons, the 
boys were asked to give instances in the ordinary school- 
boy life where worthy deeds might be done for the sake 
of duty; the instances given were numerous and in- 
teresting. The Victoria Cross lessons formed material 
for many a stimulating reference or association in later 

Knowledge is a dead possession unless we can apply 
it to help us in our life and work. "Since the value 
of knowledge culminates in use," says De Garmo, "the 


child should be held to a diligent use of its stock of 
ideas as rapidly as they are acquired, to go from the 
particular to the general, and back again from the general 
to the particular, to traverse his circle of ideas from a 
given standpoint in all directions, and to make use of the 
results reached for the solution of moral, theoretical, and 
practical questions." In this way the child's stock of 
ideas may be harmoniously blended, and his knowledge 
becomes a reliable personal possession. 

These are the five steps through which every worthy 
piece of knowledge must pass before it becomes a part 
of the child's mental furniture. 

It is obvious that with young children we cannot seek 
to generalize too broadly. Their instruction must often 
end with the acquisition of facts, for " their perceptions 
are neither sufficiently numerous nor complete to be basis 
of generalizations ; therefore the process of abstraction as 
a whole is impossible to them." 

I append a lesson worked through these five steps. It 
was prepared and given to a class of boys by one of the 
students of the Manchester Training College :— 

The Principle of the Inclined Plane. 

Boys 1 3 years of age. 

Apparatus. — (i) Two planes, one smooth japanned and 
one rough wood. 

(2) Light glass balls about i oz. each for 


(3) Small spring balance weighing up to 

4 oz. 

(4) Small adjusted pulley. 


Aim. — How does an inclined plane lessen the weight of 
an object? 

(i.) Preparation. — 

ProMem, see-saw : 90 lbs. 120 lbs. 

boy. / \ boy. 

How can the weight of the two boys be adjusted ? 

Lead the boys to see the connexion between lengths and 

(ii). Presentation. — 

1. Take the smooth plane and require a boy to measure 
the height it is raised — 3I inches. 

The whole class enter this in their note-books in a 
column entitled " Height of plane." 

2. A second boy weighs the two glass balls, resting on 
the plane at this height. 

All enter the weight in a column in their note-books 
entitled " Force." 

These experiments are continued with new heights. 
Thus :— 

height of Plane. 


3I inches. 

\ ounce. 


I „ 

14 ,, 


21 „ (vertical) 


The length of plane is found to be 21 inches. 
The weight of balls „ „ 2 ounces. 


Colled results : 

Height = I length of plane. 
Force =|^ of weight. 
Weight = J length of plane. 
Force =J of weight. 

3. Why glass balls and a polished board are used ? 
Try experiments with the rougher board and show the 
effects of friction. 

(iii.) Associaiion. — Comparison of the plane used in the 
lesson, with instances furnished by the boys themselves ; 
such as Drayman's ladder. 
Sloping roads. 

Heavy furniture raised into a second storey window. 
Elicit the advantage of the incline, and compare with 
figures noted down, and show exactly what we mean when 
we say, " The incline is so much." 

(iv.) Formulation. — Encourage the boys to express the 
idea as a rule, and accept the best attempt. 

(v.) Application. — Give problems to be worked out, e.g. : 
A man's strength in pushing is only equal to 120 lbs., he 
has to roll a cask of 240 lbs. upon a lurry 4 ft. from the 
ground. What is the shortest plank he can use, etc. ? 

The question of the formal steps is fully dealt with in a 
book written by Charles and Frank McMurray, entitled 
The Method of the Recitation, published in Bloomington, 
Illinois, U.S.A. This chapter is inadequate as a discussion 
of the whole problem, and readers are recommended to 
read more fully on the subject. Wiget's Die formalen 
Stufen des Unterrichts is good for readers of German. 



These lessons were prepared and given by the students of 
the Women's Training Department, the Owens College. 

II. History Lessons of the Columbus Period. 
2. Rotundity of the Earth. 
3. Mathematical Geography. 
4. Ocean Currents ; Natural Science. 

5. The Choice of Paris. 

6. Robinson Crusoe. 

7. Arithmetic in connexion with the Spanish Armada 

8. Drawing in connexion with the Spanish Armada 

9. The Walls and Gates of Rome. In connexion with 
a series of lessons on Roman History. 

PIiSTORY Lessons of the Columbus Series. 

Introductory Lessons. 

Method Whole I. Riches of the East. 

(To occupy two lessons). 

Lesson I. (a). Early communications with the East. 

Trace route of Solomon's ships. 




I. Solomon had gold, silver, precious stones spices, 
peacocks and apes, etc., brought from Ophir [believed to 
be India (Ceylon)]. 

From what country would these products probably 
come? In what direction would Solomon send? From 
what point ? 


2. Alexander conquered' 
North India and en- 
couraged trade through- 
out his great dominions. 

Over what country did 

Alexander rule ? 
Question the class on his 


Show on map how he went on conquering further and 
further East. What made him try to gain India ? What 
would be the result of his conquest ? 


3. The Romans succeeded\ 
to part of Alexander's 
Eastern Empire. In 
their time there was 
communication and trade 
between East and West. 

Draw from the class that 
the Romans were rulers 
of Britain and of Pales- 
tine, etc., at the same 
time (also of the inter- 
vening lands). 

What would be the result for the various parts of the 
Empire ? 


Did the Romans possess India ? Show how they would 
hear about it, etc. 

Did the Roman Empire continue ? 

Would there be so much trade and intercourse afterwards 
between East and West ? 

Recapitulate under the three headings — 

I. Solomon. 2. Alexander. 3. Roman Empire. 


Lesson II. — Later communications with the East. 

1. The Crusaders. Refer to the time when various 
countries in Europe combined to rescue the Holy 

Did the Crusaders go as far as India? 

How would they hear of it? What kind of stories 
would they tell on reaching home? What effect would 
these have? 

2. The Italian merchants. After the fall of the Roman 
Empire what country was likely to maintain most com- 
merce ? 

Show position of Genoa and Venice. Why suitable for 
trading towns ? 

From hearing stories of the riches of the East from the 
Crusaders, etc., what would the merchants of these towns 
desire ? How were they to trade with India, being so far 

Association. — Why did these various people wish to get 
to India? Let the class distinguish Alexander's different 
reasons. Was it an easy task ? How did the Italian mer- 
chants resemble the people in Solomon's or Alexander's 

Why do our explorers try to reach unknown lands? 
Let the class mention different explorers, and suggest their 
reasons. Why do their countrymen wish them to go? 

Formulation. — Men are wilUng to face great dangers to 
gain knowledge, glory, or riches by exploring unknown lands. 

Method Whole II. Routes to India. 

Lesson I. Aim. — How would the Italian merchants 
try to reach India ? 


(i.) PreJ>aration.— Which, way had Solomon's ships gone ? 
How had Alexander marched to India ? What difference 
would there be for the merchants ? (Greater length of 
journey ; no army, etc.) 

(ii.) Presentation.— y^h\ch. is cheaper, sending goods by 
land or by water ? 

.-. The merchants would choose to go as far as possible 
by water. 

Different Routes. 
Mediterranean by land"! 
to Euphrates, Persian l- 
Gulf, Arabian Sea. J 
Black Sea by land to 
Caspian, Oxus, Indus 



By Red Sea 
(from Nile). 

Land journey from Medi- 
terrean, and its diffi- 
Very long route across 
difficult land. 
Was there any Suez Canal in those 
days? How must goods be 
taken to the sea? Desert journey 
with camels also a heavy tax. 








5 i^x 
J V I 

5 \ VS. 





,--—*■ I 

/ \ 

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M) ^ 



Lesson II. Aim. — What other possible ways were there 
of reaching India ? 

(i.) Preparation. — Draw from the class that the Italian 
merchants had gone East and South-East. Supposing a 
country further west than Italy wished to reach India, what 
direction might its merchants take ? 

(ii.) Presentation : — 

„ , , \ Which country would be 

I. Southern route round ' 


^ . , likely to attempt it ? 

Africa. Pomt out on 

j Disadvantages. Length 

map— . 

/of journey. 

People's fears. Discuss the fears of the Equator. 

People thought the water boiled there ; region of fire. 

Refer to the account of the torrid zone whence the Nile 
flowed, in Hypatia. 

Show old maps giving fanciful details of unknown lands. 

[Other quaint maps are to be found in Columbus's 
Journal (Hakluyt Society).] 

2. Western route across "\ 
the Atlantic (depend- 
ing on the earth's being 

What country might at- 
tempt this way ? De- 
scribe beginnings of 
Portuguese adventurers. 

Illustrate by stories of the terrors of the W. Ocean. 

(See Washington Irving's Life of Columbus: Passage 
quoted from the Arabian Xerif al Edrisi. " The ocean 
encircles the ultimate bounds of the inhabited earth, and 
all beyond it is unknown. No one has been able to verify 
anything concerning it on account of its difficult and peril- 
ous navigation, its great obscurity, its profound depth and 
frequent tempests, through fear of its mighty fishes and its 
haughty winds, yet there are many islands in it, some 


peopled, others inhabited, There is no mariner who dares 
to enter into its deep waters ; or, if any have done so, they 
have merely kept along its coasts, fearful of departing from 
them. The waves of this ocean, although they roll as high 




Old English Map. 

as mountains, yet maintain themselves without breaking; 
for if they broke, it would be impossible for ship to plough 

Why were men so afraid of a voyage west ? What was 
needed in order to attempt it ? 


(iii.) Association. — Summarise the various routes. Com- 
pare their difficulties. Draw out that the land journeys 
were real difficulties ; the objection to the long sea voyage 
were fears of imaginary things, which would disappear with 
experience. So lead up to the Formulation. 

(iv.) Formulation. — The best way of getting to India was 
by sea, if men could be found to attempt it. 

Method Whole III. Discovery of America by Columbus. 

Aim. — We are going to hear how at the end of the 
fifteenth century new land was discovered which greatly 
influenced the affairs of Europe. 

(When the class repeat the aim let them note the three 
main points — time, event, result.) 

Lesson I. Special Aim. — We are going to hear about 
the man who tried to reach India by sailing West. 

(i.) Preparation. — What kind of man must he be ? AVhy ? 
Let class suggest from what country he might come. (Italy 
and Portugal, as noticed, specially interested in the matter.) 
(ii.) Presentation. 

I. Columbus' early| ^^^^ ^^j^j^^ ^^^j^ ^^ ^.^^^ ^^^ P 
life m Italy. V ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ P 
Studies, etc. I 

Why should he go to Portugal ? 
Give details of the facts on 
which he based his conclu- 
sions that land lay West, 
(i) His own theory "The Nature of Things." 
(2) Books of Greeks and Arabians saying earth was 

Columbus in Portu- 
gal. First ideas 
of land to- the 


(3) Objects which had floated across from the West 
— trees, carved wood, dead bodies, stories of 

Show how natural it was for 

Columbus' letters 
from Toscanelli. 

Columbus to wish his theories 
corroborated by learned men. 
Read extracts from the Toscanelli correspondence. (See 
Journal of Columbus, Hakluyt Society.) 
Points to be emphasized in the letters : — 
(i) Belief in great riches — spices and jewels, etc. — 

(2) Curiosity as to new forms of government, peoples, etc. 

(3) Desire to do them good — make converts. 
Toscanelli's map of the Atlantic (not now in existence, 

but has been restored from the minute descriptions given, 
and from an old map). 

Lesson II. — We are going to hear what difficulties Col- 
umbus overcame before he was able to start on jhis voyage. 


(i.) Preparation. — What would he need for his voyage ? 
From whom could he get men, money, ships, etc. ? 
Could Toscanelli give them? What was he able to give? 
(ii.) Presentation. — Applications to various Courts, 
(i) Portugal. Story of the deception practised on him. 
What would he then do ? 

(2) Genoa and England. Why no help was obtained. 
(Let the class suggest these places.) 

(3) Spain. 

{a) Ferdinand and Isabella 
very powerful. At 
war just then. 

Would they have time or 
money just then ? Still, 
would they wish the 
chance to pass to an- 
other country ? 

iU) Columbus at Salamanca, "i th .. . 1 
^ ' . Illustrate by picture. 

Discussions with the ^ ^ . „ ■ u /-. 

Contrast Spanish Car- 

dinals with Toscanelli. 

clergy. Great oppo- 

Bring out connexion better. Learning and the Church 
in Spain less freedom than in Italy. Let the class suggest 
what would be urged against Columbus' ideas. Great heat 
at the Equator, etc. 

Describe his long waiting. Illustrate by extracts from the 
Columbus poems of Lowell and Tennyson. 

What qualities in his character are brought out ? 

Lesson III. — We are going to hear how Columbus at 
last set out on his voyage west. 

(i.) Preparation. — After all this delay and opposition, 
what would Columbus feel inclined to do ? Would he give 
up his plans ? What other course was there ? 



(ii.) Presentation. 

1. The Prior at Palos be-" 

friended Columbus, 
and got the Queen 
to listen to him. 

2. The King's treasurer also 

took his part, and funds 
were obtained. 


3. The preparations at 

Palos, and setting 

Why was Palos a better place 
than Salamanca for gain- 
ing attention to such plans 
as those of Columbus ? 
Would there be any diffi- 
culty now in getting 
j ships, men, etc. ? 
Show picture of the three ships 
{Santa Maria, Finfa, and 
Nina) found in Columbus' 


Why were there delays in getting sailors ? 
Describe start from Palos ; feelings of the crew, etc. 
4. Voyage as far as") Would this be considered so for- 
th e Canaries. / midable? Fairly well known, etc. 

Extracts from Columbus' yb«r«a/ to be read, describing 
the accident to the Finta's rudder, putting in at The Canaries 
for repairs, provisions, water, etc. 

Lesson IV. — We are going to hear how Columbus sailed 
across the Atlantic and discovered land in the west. 

This lesson is to be taken chiefly from the Journal of 
Columbus, illustrated by map of the Atlantic. 

(i.) Freparation. — Why should Columbus keep a journal? 
For whose benefit would it be? To what place did he 
think he was going ? What had he to guide him ? 

(ii.) Presentation. — Read the beginning oi tht Journal. 

I. Note two of Columbus' ambitions : — 

(i) To get honours for himself and his descendants. 


(2) To convert the barbarian kings and princes to his 
ir. His intentions for the voyage : — 

(i) To note what happened from day to day, and 
describe it at night in his Journal, and so " to 
forget sleep." 

(2) To work at the business of navigation all day. 

(3) To prepare a new chart showing all seas and lands. 
What does this show us about his character. 

III. Incidents of the voyage. 
Falsification of the reckoning. 

If sixty leagues had been made the Admiral put forty- 
eight (in order to make the voyage seem shorter). 
Why should he do this? Let the children give their 
views on the rightness or wrongness of it. 

Encouragements. — i. Lovely weather, "like April in 
Flight of birds. 

Tufts of grass coming from west. 
Helped by the current. 
Drizzling rain, no wind (sign of 
land near), etc. 
Discouragements. — i. Variation of the compass. Now 
probably for the first time, ob- 
served that it pointed N.N.W., 
not due N.) 
How would Columbus explain this ? 
2. Wind always in one direction, 
favourable. Why should this 
alarm them ? (How to get 


Rest of voyage to be taken in same way. 

Note especially reference to the weed sailed through. 
Murmurings of the sailors — Columbus like Moses. Finally 
almost a mutiny, the day before land was sighted. 

Last signs of land. Pole worked with iron ; cane ; land 
plant ; board ; branch of berries. 

How Rodrigo de Triana first saw land. 

Lesson V. Aim. — What sort of land did Columbus dis- 
cover ? 
i. Preparation : — What would be the feelings of Colum- 
bus and his crew ? 
What would they do first? etc. 
To whom was this new land to 
belong ? 
ii. Presentation : — 

\ Describe the landing. Appear- 
I. The landing in San I ance and feeling of the natives. 
Salvador. I How would the new-comers 

J treat them ? 

\ Would Columbus stay in San 

IL Exploration of the I Salvador? Where did he think 

nearer islands. | he had arrived? What products 

J did he expect to find ? 
[Desire for gold as evidence of having reached India. 
Describe presents of bells, etc., to natives. Point 
out islands explored and named ; character and 
treatment of natives.] 

\ Explain that Columbus still 

"^'^ndnftT"^^"^ r *°"^^' '^'' island was Ci^ 
^ ■ J pango, then Cathay. 


[Describe the hospitality of the Caciques ; the inno- 
cence and happiness of the people — a sort of 
Golden Age.] 

Draw from the class that the 
beauty of the land would 
make some desirous to settle 
there. What would the wreck 
suggest ? Would Columbus 
wish to stay ? Describe 
briefly his voyage home, 
How would his news be re- 
ceived in Spain ? 
An indefinite number of lessons might still be given 
relating future discoveries, expansions of power, and settle- 
ment, etc. This would depend on the time to be devoted 
to the scheme, and the precise scope of the aim. The dis- 
covery has been followed out far enough to admit of a 
conclusion being suggested. 

IV. Shipwreck in Hayti, 
building of a fort- 
ress with the wreck 
for part of the crew, 
while Columbus 
returned to Spain 
with the news. 

Lesson VI. ^//«. —Results of Columbus' discovery, and 

what we may learn from it. 
i. Preparation : — Question generally on results expected, 
efforts of the discoverers, and their 
ii. Presentation : — 
I. Development of the Discovery. 

Show, by the help of the map, how the Spaniards 
naturally spread to the mainland. Which parts 
would be settled first ? When would people first 
become aware that they were not in the Far 


East? Then what would they call their dis- 
covery? (New World) 

II. Effects on Europe. 

Question on — i. Material use of the discovery. 

2. Effect on men's minds. 

3. Special effect on Spain and the other 

western countries of Europe. Show 
how future rivalries were natural. 
Connect with the Hiawatha lessons — " All the land was 

full of people . . . speaking many tongues.^' What does 

this show ? 

III. Effect on the natives : — 
Connect with Hiawatha's Vision. 

In what state did Hiawatha see his countrymen ? Present 
state of American Indians. 

How did Columbus treat the natives ? 

His good intentions and aspirations afterwards obscured 
by too great zeal. 

[Let the children grasp the tragic side to the great dis- 

These results more concisely put may be taken as the 
Formulation. It seems, however, desirable that, considering 
the age of the children, the hero of the discovery, rather 
than its political importance, should be dwelt upon in con- 
clusion as a means of conveying ethical teaching. 

iii. Association :— Bring out, by questioning, the qualities 
shown by Columbus in his great work. 
(a) Courage, enterprise, curiosity 
(i) Patience in'working out his plans, and waiting for 
their fulfilment. 


{<:) Hard work and faith in carrying out his plans, and 
forbearance with his weaker followers. 
[Let the class give instances of these, noting the three 
periods of Columbus' life treated of. Now com- 
pare with other great men, explorers, etc. Alex- 
ander (in some aspects) in his Eastern settlements, 
Julius Caesar, in Gaul, may be employed. Moses 
(Columbus' own comparison). Read passage 
from the Jouma/ SLgnin]. 
Analogy seen in — Waiting patiently. 
Faith in Mission. 
Forbearance with followers. 
Both leading people to a " Promised Land." 
Great results from each. 

iv. Formulation : — This should be obtained from the 
class after summing up the points in the Association, and 
noting what kind of men have shown such qualities. 
When condensed it may read : A great work requires a 
hero who will give his life to it. 

Application. — Longfellow's verse, " Lives of great men," 
etc., may be used as an illustration. Draw out the per- 
sonal lessons to be learned. Let the children talk about 
what they would like to be, and help them to notice. 

(i) Benefit to ourselves in admiring and learning about 
great men. 

(2) How to be of service, not a hindrance to them. 



The Rotundity of the Earth. 

General Aim. — Did Columbus form his plans correctly ? 

I. Preparation. — Why was he forming plans? He 
wanted to get to India. 

In what direction does India lie with regard to Europe ? 
It lies East. 

Why did he sail West ? He had heard from Greek and 
Arabian books, and he knew from his own observations, 
that land lay West. He thought the earth must be a 

II. Presentation. — Columbus had also been told by a 
clever man named Toscanelli that the earth was round. 

Extract from letter to Martins enclosed to 
Columbus by Toscanelli. 

" I have already spoken with you respecting a shorter 
way to the place of spices, than that which you take by 
Guinea by means of maritime navigation. The most serene 
king now seeks from me some statement, or rather a 
demonstration to the eye by which the slightly learned 
may take in and understand that way. I know this can 
be shown from the spherical shape of the earth, yet to 
make the comprehension of it easier, and to facilitate the 
work, I have determined to show that way by means of a 
sailing chart.'' 

(Simple sketch of chart sketched on blackboard. Coasts, 
islands, and calling-stations pointed out.) 

Letter " You must not be surprised if I call the 

conttaned. p^^jg ^Vest whcn they usually call them East, 
because to those always sailing Westj those parts are found 
by navigation on the under side of the earth. But if by 


land and by the upper side, they will always be found to 
the East." 

Explanation and illustrations of this by means of a large 
globe of the earth. 

Second " ^ perceive your magnificent and grand 

Letter. dcsirc to navigate from the parts of the East to 
the West, in the way that was set forth in the letter that I 
sent you, and which will be better demonstrated on a round 
sphere. It pleases me much that I should be well under- 
stood, for the said voyage is not only possible, but it is true 
and certain to be honourable, and to yield incalculable 
profit and very great fame among all Christians. But you 
cannot know this save through experience and practice as 
I have had, in the form of most copious and good and true 
information from distinguished men of great learning, who 
have come from the said parts." 

Recapitulation. — Toscanelli believed the earth to be a 

Lesson II. Aim. — Was Toscanelli right in thinking the 
earth is a sphere ? 

Preparation. — Require the pupils to give the reasons of 
Columbus and Toscanelli for thinking the earth was a 

Let them quote from their literature Tennyson's " Colum- 
bus," the lines — 

" Could it be 
That trees grew downward, rain fell upward, men 
Walk'd like the fly on ceilings?" 


Presentation. — (a) Roughly sketch curved surfaces on 

Observations. — Objects on a curved surface (Fig. i) are 
hidden from each other, or partly hidden as in Fig. 2. 

Sketch. — {b) Showing that the body of the ship dis- 
appears first. 

Observations. — 

1. The whole of the near ships are visible. 

2. Only the masts of the distant ships are visible. 

Recapitulation. — The surface of the earth is curved, 
hence the hull of ships disappear first in the distance. 

{c) Show map of the world and trace the course of 
Magellan's voyage made in 1520. Magellan sailed west, 
round the South of America, across the Pacific to Asia, 
and thence back again to Europe. 

Recapitulation. — The earth must be round in one 
direction or Magellan could not sail round it. 

{d) The Earth's Shadow. — This is sometimes cast upon 
the moon and it is always round. 



Bodies which cast a round shadow — a, cylinder ; b, 
disc; c, sphere. 


Shadows cast by a Cylinder. 

Shadows cast by a Disc. 

The shadow cast by a sphere is always round. These 
shadows are illustrated by a candle, a white sheet of 
paper, and the three bodies — cylinder, disc, and sphere. 

Recapitulation. — The shadow cast by a sphere is always 
round, the shadows cast by a cylinder and disc are 

III. Association. — Sum up the evidence and discuss it. 
(a) Objects disappear from sight on curved surfaces. 


(3) The masts of ships remain visible when the hull has 
disappeared from view, hence earth is curved. 

(c) Magellan sailed round the earth, hence it is round in 
one direction. 

(d) The earth always casts a round shadow, hence it is 
a sphere. 

Compare and associate these conclusions, and lead the 
pupils to the generalization. 

IV. Generalization. — The earth is a sphere, therefore 
Columbus and Toscanelli were right. 

Later the class studied the geography of America and the 
West Indian Islands. 

Mathematical Geography. 

A series of lessons on the measurements of the earth, 
its motions, its position with regard to the Sun, Latitude, 
Longitude, use of Ships' Compass, use of Sextant Chrono- 
meter, Maps, Charts, form suitable lessons in connexion 
with Columbus. The simple charts and instruments he 
used are. compared with the instruments in use in the 
present day, and his slight astronomical, mathematical, and 
geographical knowledge compared with the fuller know- 
ledge of our own times. 

Aim. — How can a sea captain or a sailor find the posi- 
tion of his ship at sea ? 

I. Preparation. — Shape of the Earth. A sphere. 

It rotates from West to East. 

It completes a rotation in twenty-four hours. 

The earth is divided into 360° longitude. 

The children gave these facts readily from their know- 
ledge gained in previous lessons. 



II. Presentation. — {a) Light a candle and hold an 
orange on a knitting-needle before it so that the light falls 
on it. 

Half of it is in the full glare and half in the shade. 

The candle represents the sun, the orange the earth. 
The part in the glare represents daylight, the part in the 
shade night. 

Which part is having noon ? The part exactly opposite 
the light. f 

Cause the orange to rotate, and the pupils will observe 
that various parts of the earth have noon at different times. 

Recapitulate.— Yanons parts of the earth have noon at 
different times. 

(b) Mark the meridian of Greenwich, and cause the 
orange to revolve as the earth revolves on its axis, and 
require the pupils to notice whether the eastern or western 
portion has its noon first. 

Recapitulate. — Places West of Greenwich have their noon 
later than places East of Greenwich. 


(c) Exact difference in time. — If it takes the earth 24 
hours to rotate through the 360 degrees, how long will 
it take the earth to rotate through i degree ? 

24 hrs. 1440 min. 

— 1 — — — -Tl = 4 minutes. 

360 360 

Recapitulation. — One degree of longitude is equal to four 
minutes in time. 

(i) What will be the time at Bordeaux when it is 12 
o'clock at Greenwich ? 

Position of Bordeaux, West of Greenwich (refer to the 
map). Being West it will have its noon later than Green- 

Bordeaux is 1° West of Greenwich, therefore it will be 
11.56 at Bordeaux when it is 12 o'clock at Greenwich. 

Problems. — What time is it at Genoa when it is 12 
o'clock at London ? 

What time is it at New York when it is 12 o'clock at 
Greenwich ? 

What time is it at Greenwich when it is 4 o'clock at 
Bombay ? 
{e) Examine places near the same meridian. 
Examples found on the map by pupils : — 
London and Timbucktu. 
Pekin and Perth in Australia. 
Berlin and Capetown. 
Recapitulation, — Places on the same meridian have noon 
at the same time. 
General recapitulation of the matter in presentation. 

III. Association. — Associate with knowledge of pre- 
vious lessons on Latitude, method of finding the time by 


observing the altitude of the sun, use of Chronometer and 

How can we discover the time of a certain place ? By 
knowing the longitude. 

How can a sailor find the longitude ? By knowing the 
Greenwich time and comparing with the ship's time. 

How can a sailor know the Greenwich time ? By con- 
sulting a chronometer. 

How can he find the ship's time? By observing the 
altitude of the sun. 

Why is a knowledge of longitude not enough to fix the 
position of the ship ? Longitude only shows how far the 
ship is East or West of a given point. Pekin and Perth in 
Australia are in the same longitude. 

What fixes its position North or South of Equator? 

How does the sailor find his latitude ? By discovering 
the sun's altitude, and by consulting a Nautical Almanack. 

Having found his longitude and latitude what must he do 
further ? Consult his chart or map. 

IV. Gejieralization.—Tht exact position of a ship may 
be discovered by obtaining a correct observaiion of the 
longitude and latitude, and finding the exact point on a 
map or chart. 

Application.— A. number of problems bearing upon a 
knowledge of latitude, longitude, and arithmetic were 
given to be solved. 


Natural Science. 

Ocean Currents. 

Aim. — How were the objects, which made Columbus 
decide there was land to the West, carried to the Eastern 
Atlantic ? 

Preparation. — Why did Columbus sail West ? He hoped 
to find land. Why did he think there was land westward ? 
Various objects had been found in the Eastern Atlantic 
which he thought had drifted from the West. Mention the 
objects, (a) Pieces of carved wood were found by a 
Portuguese pilot in the seas west of Portugal. {V) Reeds 
and trees were cast up on the western shores of the Azores. 
(c) The bodies of two men of an unknown race drifted on 
to the island of Flores. 

Require the pupils to quote from their literature Tenny- 
son's "Columbus," lines indicating the approach of land. 

" Still westward, and the weedy seas— at length 
The landbird, and the branch with berries on it. 
The carven staff." 

Had Columbus any other reason for thinking there was 
land westward ? 

He had read accounts of it in old books. 
Recapitulation of Preparation. 

Presentation. — i. How were these objects carried ? By 
the waves ? Possibly, but not very likely. The motion of 
the waves is an up and down motion, which does not 
carry objects far. 

Illustrations. — (a) Throw a match or cork into a large 
vessel of water. Disturb the water in order to produce a 


wave-like motion, and require children to observe that the 
objects only move up and down. 

{b) Take a long piece of stout cord, attach it to a hook 
in the wall, and by a sudden movement make it form of a 
series of undulating waves, thus : 

Keep it in motion by moving the end, and show that the 
motion is simply an up and down motion. 

{c) Refer to a field of wheat in the wind. It has the 
appearance of a series of waves, whereas there is only the 
up and down motion. 

Recapitulation. — The simple wave-7notion is an up and 
down motion. 

2. The objects might have been carried by ships. That 
is not likely. The Atlantic was unexplored, except around 
the coasts. 

Think of the river Mersey at Old Trafford, and the 
canal opposite to it. Now suppose we threw a block of 
wood into each, which would move the more quickly ? 
The block in the river Mersey. Why? Because a river 
has a natural current, which a canal has not. 

Can you think of anything in the ocean similar to rivers 
on land ? Currents. 

Then if the objects got into a current, they might very 
easily be carried a long distance. 

Compare in a very elementary way a land river and an 
ocean current, and distinguish between them. 

Recapitulation.— Th.^ objects may have been carried by 
ocean currents. 



Lesson II. Aim. — How are ocean currents caused ? 

Preparation. — How were the objects probably carried to 
the Eastern Atlantic ? 

Recapitulate the previous Lesson. 

Presentation. — Apparatus required : Flasks, beakers, 
small pair of bellows, a marble, a cork and piece of slate 
pencil, bunsen burner, ice, small pieces of blotting paper, 
map on Mercator's projections, vessel of water. 

1. Experiments. — {a) Blow steadily over the surface of 
the water with the bellows. What happens to the water ? 
It moves. What makes it move? The wind from the 
bellows. Therefore, wind blowing over the water of the 
ocean causes it to move. 

{b) Blow in sudden gusts over the surface of the water. 
It still moves, but in jerks ; no current could be caused by 
it, therefore the wind must blow steadily in order to pro- 
duce a current. 

Blow steadily, but in different directions. The water 
moves, but no current could be produced this way. 

Recapitulate. — The wind must blow steadily, continuously, 
and in one direction only to produce a current. 

/'a marble, 

2. Experiments. — Drop"{ ' 

I a cork, 

Va piece of wood, 
one after another into the water. What happens ? The 
marble and slate pencil sink, the cork and piece of wood 
float. {Recapitulate. — Some objects float on water and 
some sink). 

3. Experiment.— h. flask of water filled up to a certain 


mark was weighed at the beginning of the lesson. It 
weighed i lb. This flask was heated and is now shown. 
Children observe that the water has risen higher than the 
mark. How much will it weigh? Pour water out until 
it again stands at the mark. How much does it weigh 
now ? Less than i lb. 

What can you infer about heated water ? 

What will happen if heated water is put into a flask of 
cold water? 

Recapitulation. — Heated water occupies more space, and 
is lighter than cold water. 

4. Experiments. — Sketch diagram, showing flask of water 
with a lamp underneath. 

Children will readily state that the water at the bottom 
will become heated and rise to the top of the flask, and 
the colder water at the top will sink down to take its place. 

Show actual experiment with tiny pieces of blotting-paper 
in the bottom of the flask. The blotting-paper rises to the 
top as the water becomes heated. 

Put a piece of ice at the top of the water. The pieces 
of blotting-paper gradually sink. 

Recapitulation. — Currents are caused in the flask by 
having water at different temperatures. 

Association. — Refer to the ocean. Show that winds blow 
steadily, continuously, and in one direction in certain parts 
of the ocean. 

Refer also to the inequalities of temperature at the 
Equator and the Poles. 

By a series of questions lead the children to the Formu- 

Formulation. — The objects Columbus saw were carried 


by ocean currents, which are caused by winds and by the 
unequal heating of the water. 

Application. — Refer to a map and point out the North 
Equatorial Current, caused by the North-east Trade Wind, 
and the South Equatorial Current, produced by the South- 
east Trade Wind. Require children to draw diagrams of 
these. Refer to map, and draw attention to the Gulf 
Stream and Polar under-currents, caused by inequality of 
temperature. Require children to draw diagrams. 

(The Association may require a whole lesson, and the 
Application may require two lessons, to work through it 

The Choice of Paris. 
{Story for children six years old.) 

Aim. — How a Prince had to choose one of three gifts — 
to be very great, or very wise, or to have the most beauti- 
ful lady in the world for his wife. 

Preparation. — What people are very great ? 

What would the Prince have been called if he had 
chosen that gift ? 

Why do some people want to be very wise ? 

Which gift seems the most pleasant ? 

Could any one offer such gifts ? How it came about. 

Presentation — 

I. The Banquet of the Gods. 

Once upon a time all the gods and goddesses Went to a 
wedding feast. They wanted every one to be very happy 
and kind to every one else ; but there was one goddess 


called tlie " Goddess of Discord," who was always stirring 
up quarrels. 

Would she be wanted at the feast ? 

What might they do to keep her away ? 

Take the children's suggestions. 

But she found out about the feast, and how would she 
feel then ? 

So she came to the banquet-hall, without being invited, 
bent upon making the others quarrel ; and she brought 
with her a golden apple, with these words on it, " For the 
most beautiful." Then she threw it upon the table among 
the gods and goddesses. 

What would happen now ? 

Who would want it ? 

Could they all have it ? 

Whose fault had caused all the quarrel ? 

II. Hoiv Paris was made the Umpire. 

Now there were three goddesses who had the most claim 
to the golden apple. 

One was Juno, the Queen of Heaven, the wife of 
Jupiter; the second was Minerva, the Goddess of Wis- 
dom ; and the third was Venus, the Goddess of Beauty. 

Show pictures, etc., of the three goddesses. 

Why did Juno think she ought to have the apple ? 

Why did Minerva think so ? (She said that wisdom was 
the most beautiful thing.) 

Why did Venus claim it ? 

None of them would give way, so what would they have 
to do? 

There was a beautiful young shepherd called Paris, 
living on a mountain. He was a king's son, but the shep- 


herds had brought him up, and he was so beautiful that he 
was fixed upon to choose among the three goddesses. 

How would he be able to see them ? 

III. The Choice of Paris. 

One day the goddesses came to Paris's mountain, Mount 
Ida, so that he might judge among them, and give the 
golden apple to the one he chose. 

But the goddesses were all so eager for the apple, that 
they would do anything to get it. 

What might each one do to make Paris choose her ? 

Now Juno was the queen of the gods and goddesses. 
Which gift would she offer ? 

Show how she might make Paris a great king. 

What would Minerva offer ? 

Venus was the Goddess of Beauty. What could she 
give? Paris was very beautiful already. She promised 
him the most beautiful wife. 

Discuss the three offered gifts, showing what each meant. 

Which should Paris have chosen ? 

Yet he threw the golden apple to Venus, choosing her 
gift. Then Juno and Minerva went away in great anger, 
and were no longer friends to Paris. And Venus helped 
him to get the most beautiful lady in the world for his 
wife ; but she was already married to a Greek king. 

What would Paris have to do ? How would the Greeks 
teel? Show how this led to a great war. Had Paris 
really chosen well ? 

Association. — Compare with Solomon's choice of wisdom, 
in order to lead up to the Formulation that it is better to 
be wise and good than to have all that we wish for, how- 
ever beautiful. 


AfplicaUon. — Let the children see how the lesson can 
be applied to their own circumstances, and to other stories. 

Robinson Crusoe. 

Aim. — How did Robinson make his house ? 

Preparation. — Where did Robinson keep his things ? In 
a tent. Why was that not safe ? When the rain came, he 
would get wet. Wild beasts could get at him. Savages 
might easily find him. 

What could he make a house of? He could cut down 
trees and get wood. He might build one with stones. He 
might dig a hole in the earth. He might find a cave. 

What must be his first care ? To keep himself safe from 
wild beasts and savages. 

Then what would be the best kind of a house ? A hole 
covered over with trees, or a cave covered over with sea- 

Presentation. — I. Robinson takes a walk and looks for 
a good place, and after a while he finds a cave, which he 
thinks will do. What kind of a cave must it be ? 

1. It must be large, because it has to hold all his things. 

2. It must be dry. 

3. It must be well sheltered to keep out the rain. 

4. It must face the sun to give him light and warmth. 

5. It must be covered with weeds or trees in order to 
hide it. 

6. It must be high up and safe from wild beasts. 
(All these answers were received from the children.) 
What harm would the rain do ? 

The rain would wet him and give him a cold. The rain 
would spoil his biscuits and gunpowder. 


Recapitulation. — Robinson found a cave which was large, 
dry, well-sheltered, sunny in the mornings, and hidden by 

II. What would Robinson do first? 

He would move all his things out of the tent. Yes, that 
took him several days ; then he moved the tent, for he 
wished to put it up near his cave to form a kind of sum- 

How do you think he began to make his house ? 

Perhaps he made a fireplace, perhaps he made furniture, 
perhaps he made a garden. 

No j he did not do any of these things ; he began 
with making a fence because he wanted to be quite shut 
in and quite safe ; and there was a beautiful piece of green 
grass around his cave which he wished to enclose as a 

How do you think he made the fence ? 

He might make it of posts of wood. Of bushes, of 

He wanted to have a very strong fence in order that no 
savage men or wild beasts could get in, so he made a bank 
all round his yard first of earth and stones ; then he got 
strong trees and placed them around. He twisted ropes 
and branches in and out to strengthen it, and after several 
days' hard work he had made a strong high fence. 


III. Now what would Robinson make next ? 
A door^ a gate. 

He did not make either ; he thought it would be safer 
without. How could he get out and in ? He could climb 


the fence. That would be difficult. He could make a 

Yes J he made a rope ladder, and when he went outside 
the fence he hid the ladder, and when he came inside he 
took it with him into the cave. 


This is one of the lessons on Robinson. It is impos- 
sible to go through the five steps in one lesson. The 
formulation the teacher had in mind was " God helps those 
who help themselves," and after a series of lessons which 
depicted Robinson bravely overcoming difficulties, she ar- 
rived at this maxim. 

After this lesson the model was made. The teacher 
built up the rocks to form the cave, and the children 
twisted the fence of sticks and soft branches. They also 
made the ladder of string, and afterwards made the cabin 
which was described in the succeeding lesson. 

A series of object-lessons on the dweUings of man were 
interesting at this stage. It was pointed out that Robinson 
had lived in a house, a ship, and in a tree when he was 
first shipwrecked. Afterwards he lived in a tent and in 
a cave. This led to lessons on tent-dwelling people and 
cave-dwelling people. The children's knowledge of Bible 
was utilized in describing the people who dwelt in tents. 



The ruk of Proportion in connection with the Armada 

Problem stated.— \l the cost of provisions, for one day, 
for the 240 men in the "Revenge" was ;^8 5^. od., how 
much would it cost for the 420 men of the " Ark " ? 

As these figures were actually taken from the State 
papers of the time of the Armada, the children showed 
the keenest interest in the Arithmetic. It became a living 
reality to them. 

Preparation. — Question as to how to obtain result. We 
might find how much one man cost per day, and multiply 
by 420 ; but this is a long, round-about method. 

Give the different steps in working. 

1. Compare numbers of the two crews. 

240 compared with 420. 

Children point out that 

240 = 4 X 60, while 420 = 7x60 
.-. 420 =:| of 240 ; 
or, 240 =-f- of 420. 

2. Make the sum needed as many times as large for the 
second crew as it is increased above the first crew, i.e. — 

If 240 men cost £fi 5 J. od., 

420 or -I of 240 cost ;^8 5^. od. x \. 

Let the class work out the result. 

^8 5x. od. X 7 

;^S7 rsj. o^.-r4 

^14 8j. 9(/. 
This is a mere recapitulation of a previous lesson. 



Presentation. — Show the class the relation between 
240 420 

(4 X 60) ^^^ (7 X 60). 


4 X 60 




This enables the class to verify the statement that 240 is 
•f- of 420, or that 420 is \ of 240. 

Let the class point out that £,\:i, 8^. 9^. is \ of ;^8 55. Qd., 
just as much as 420 is -| of 240. 

Give diagram and show this. 

For clearness, 8 may be compared with 14 at first. 
8 = 4 X 2. 14=7 X 2. 




Give examples of similar fractional relations by diagrams 
and folded paper, showing that however the signs of the 
numbers composed may vary, the relation between them 
remains the same, i.e. one number is as many times as great 
as the other. 


Exaviples. — i. A small strip of paper divided so that the 
smaller part is \ of the whole, or the larger part \. 

2. A large strip similarly divided. 

Require the children to notice that we have equal frac- 
tions in both cases. 

Also illustrate with two sets of cubes. 

Keep the two sets of cubes before the class, and by 
means of questioning and observation cause them to state 
that, though the numbers vary, the relation remains the 

Point out that the statement of the children, " that one 
number remains as many times as great as the other, as 
before,'' is clumsy, and introduce the word ratio and show 
its meaning. 

Recapitulation. — Ratio = the comparison of two numbers 
as to their size. 

Association. — Lead the children, by skilful questioning, 
to correct their former statement of the mode of working 
the problem. 

Formulation. — Lead the children to formulate the new 
method of working themselves. 

1. Compare the numbers of the two crews, and see what 
is the ratio between them. 

2. Make the ratio between the first sum and the second 
sum the same as the ratio between the first crew and the 
second crew. 

Statement of these ratios : — 

420 ^14 ?>s. gd. 
Application. — Work the following : — 


If the cost of provisions for the crew were ;^33 os. od. 
for 4 days, how much would it be for 10 days ? 

N.B. — When the rule was mastered, other problems re- 
lating to details of the Spanish Armada served as an appli- 
cation of the rule. The children were living, as it were, 
in the time of the Spanish Armada, and naturally all details 
relating to the period interested them. 

Drawing Lesson. 

This lesson is merely the application of a previous 
History lesson on English and Spanish Ships. 

Lesson I. — A Spanish Ship. 

jli'm. — We are going to draw a Spanish ship. 

Preparation. — Draw from children the differences be- 
tween Spanish and English ships. 

Spanish ships were lofty, heavy, and hard to manage ; 
they were rowed by slaves. They did not carry many 
cannon, and they had more soldiers on board than sailors. 

The English ships were as a rule smaller, more con- 
venient, could move quicker, they carried more cannon, 
and they had more sailors than soldiers on board. 

Directions. — The most important lines must be drawn 
first in fine, free, bold outline. 

I. Lines. — First, the central vertical line for the centre 
of mainmast. 

Second, the chief horizontal line. 

Third, the central line of the stern. 

Teacher draws these on the blackboard, and children 
work them the same time in their drawing books. 


II. Outlines. — Draw outlines of the stern, the hull, the 
high poop, and lastly, the masts, maintop, rudder and stair- 

Discuss the drawing with the children during the working, 
and let them suggest what to do next. 

Lesson II. — An English ship. 

Follow the same general method in this lesson. 




: ''I 










\T " ' 




4 / 













1 / 

Spanish Ship 




















L "«. 




An Ee 

glisb Ship 

After the formal lessons were given the children were 
allowed to sketch the ships roughly from memory. 


The following sketches were also drawn in connexion 
with this series, and various other objects which the chil- 
dren themselves suggested. 



— : 


^ L 







































— ^ 



Gunpowder barrel 


























^ 1 



f ^ 





— r^ 








'^'y I j 







— ' 



'ord hilt 



1 1 -^ 




Notes of Lesson on the Walls and Gates of 

This lesson was given in connexion with a series of 
Roman lessons. Macaulay's Ballads and Shakespeare's 
" Julius Csesar " formed the literature of this series. 

Standard VI. 

Apparatus. — Black-board and chalks (coloured). Plan 
of Rome showing the walls. Gift VI. Model of Greek 
Temple. Blocks of wood and clamps. 

Aim. How did the Romans build their walls and 
gates ? 


Preparation. — The use 
of walls round the Roman 
city, and their respective 

Romulus, B.C. 753. 

Servius, B.C. 578. 

Aurelian, a.d. 271. 


Question on the boundaries 
of Rome at different periods, 
and the use of walls, e.g., 
How did the Romans fix the 
boundaries of their city? 
Why were walls used ? When 
and by whom was first wall 
built ? How much territory 
did it include? For how 
many years did this remain 
the boundary? What land 
was enclosed in second wall ? 
By whom was the last wall 
built ? 

N.B. — Whilst questioning 
indicate the walls on the 




Black-board Sketch, — 
(a) Walls used as — 

1. Boundaries ; 

2. Protection from 


Presentation. — 

(a) Construction of Ro- 
mulus^ Wall. B.C. 753. 
Rough uncemented 

Spaces between large 

stones filled up with smaller 


Wall 50 ft. high, 12 ft. 

Three gates. 

In building his wall 
Romulus first dug a furrow 
with his plough,and against 
the bank formed from the 
earth built his wall. This 
method both made the 
bank permanent and sup- 
ported the wall. 

Gates to be named 
merely, their construction 
to be described later. 

Recapitulation. — 

Get suggestions from the 
class of the manner in which 
these only partially civilised 
people might build, by such 
questioning as : " With what 
materials would a modern 
builder provide himself?" 
Would the Romans have 
bricks and mortar at that 
time ? Where do we some- 
times see walls built without 
any cement ? 

At this point draw rough 
sketch of the wall. 

Question on the necessity 
of having gates. 




{b) Wall of Servius. 

Progress in civilisation. 

Stones cut to fit into 
each other. 

Iron clamps used to 
fasten stones together. 

Openings in wall arched. 

Development of arch. 

Thirty-seven gates. 

Black-board. — 

{a) Romulus Wall. 

Rough, uncemented, three 
gates. Recapitulation. 

" In what way would 
Servius' wall be different from 
that of Romulus ? " 

Explain that curious holes 
are sometimes found in the 
stones of ancient buildings in 

Explanation of this is that 
iron bands were used to 
fasten stones together, and 
have since been destroyed by 
action of the weather. 

Illustrate method of using 
the clamps. 

Tell the class that at 
various points in wall open- 
ings were made so that the in- 
habitants of the city might be 



(<r) Wall of Aurelian. 

Begun A.D. 271. 

Bricks and mortar used. 

Same as modern wall. 

Tiber crossed by eight 

Fourteen gates. 

able to see when danger was 
approaching. These openings, 
which before were simply of 
an irregular square or oblong 
shape, were now arched. 

Draw comparison between 
Romulus' and Servius' wall. 
Black-hoard. — 

{b) Wall of Servius. 

Cut stones and iron clamps. 

Arched openings. 

Thirty-seven gates. Recap- 

Question to bring out that 
the further advance in civili- 
sation and the use of bricks 
and mortar. 



Require children to point 
out Aurelian's wall on the plan. 




{d) Gates.— 

Three kinds. 

{a) With two arches, 
one for entering, another 
for leaving the city — both 
used by carriages and 
foot passengers. 

{b) One large arch 
for carriages entering 
and leaving city, and 
a small one on i — 
either side for foot l~^ 

{c) One large arch 
for carriages with a 
passage on each side 
foot passengers. 

Black-board. — 

{/:) Wall of Aurelian. 

Bricks. Fourteen gates. 

Illustrate the construction 
and build with Froebel's Gifts. 



r— ] 



Show a model of Greek 
temple, and encourage child- 
ren to bring out contrasting 

Association. — 

Compare the Roman 
buildings with those of 
Greece, studied in previ- 
ous lessons. 

Formulation. — 

(a) Wall of Romulus. Rough, uncut and uncemented 
stones. Three gates. Square or oblong openings. 


{b) Wall of Servius. Cut stones and iron clamps. 

Thirty-seven gates. Arched openings. 
{c) Wall of Aurelian. Bricks and mortar. Fourteen 

{d) Gates, {a) Double arch. 

{b) Large central arch and two side ones. 
{c) Large arch with two narrow passages. 
Application. — Drawing of walls and gates. 
Drawing of the Greek temple. 

The drawing of the Greek temple was followed by 
drawings of Roman arches in later lessons. 



John Friederich Herbart was born at Oldenburg in 
1776. He died at Gottingen in 1841. At the age of 
eighteen he went to the University of Jena to study law. 
At this period Jena was the centre of German philosophic 
thought, and the young Herbart, following his natural 
inclinations, neglected his law studies and became an 
enthusiastic follower of Fichte, who had succeeded Rhein- 
hold to the chair of philosophy in the Jena University. 

During his second year of university life Herbart rejected 
the idealism of Fichte, and in his criticism of Schelling, 
written about this time, he lays the foundation of his own 
future philosophy. " I seek to determine a human being," 
he says, " by the laws of his reason and nature, and to give 
him that which will enable him to make something of him- 

He left Jena after three years, without completing his 
course, and became a private tutor to three boys in a Swiss 
family. While thus employed, he conceived some of the 
fundamental principles of his educational theories. 

In 1799 he visited Pestalozzi in his school at Burgdorf, 
and was profoundly impressed by the old man's methods 
and aim. " I have long held," he wrote, " that the sole 



and genuine root of instruction is a feeling of clear compre- 
hension. A perfect regularity in the sequence of studies, 
adapted to all requirements, was to me the ideal, which I 
looked upon as the omnipresent means of securing to all 
instruction its true efficacy. It was the discovery of this 
sequence, of this arrangement and co-ordination' of what 
was to be learned contemporaneously and what consecu- 
tively, which formed, as I understand it, Pestalozzi's chief 
aim. His method is at least so far correct, that it rejected 
harmful superfluities. Its laconic brevity is its most essen- 
tial merit. No useless word was heard in the school ; thus 
the train of understanding was never interrupted. The 
teacher spoke steadily to the children, the wrong letters 
were immediately rubbed off the slate, so the child could 
never linger over his mistakes. There was no deviation 
from the true course, therefore every moment was one of 

After resigning his tutorship in 1799, Herbart spent two 
years in Bremen reading philosophy, in order to qualify 
himself for a university chair. 

Some of the earliest of his writings bear upon educational 
questions. In 1802 he published his essay on Pestalozzi's 
new work, How Gertrude Taught Her Children ( Wie Ger- 
trud ihre Kinder lehrt) ; and later, Pestalozzi's Idea of an 
A £ C of Observation {Pestalozzi's Idee eines ABC der 
Anschauung). The latter invested the ideas of Pestalozzi 
with a more scientific form than the great Swiss educator 
could give them himself. 

In 1802 Herbart went to Gottingen as d. privat-docent m 
pedagogy, and began to lecture on ethics, philosophy and 
pedagogy. His lectures were so brilliant that soon the 


whole philosophical life of Gottingen centred in his class- 

He published a number of important books during his 
Gottingen period. 

In 1804 the second edition of Pestalozzi's Idea of an 
A B C of Observation appeared, to which was added The 
Moral Revelation of the World as the Chief Work of Educa- 
tion {Die aesthetische Darstellung derWelt als das Haupt- 
geschaft der Erziehung). The main thought in this work is 
that the teacher can reveal to the pupils, through the 
medium of the ordinary branches of school instruction and 
school experience, the moral relations between the individual 
and his fellows, and by these means develop in the child a 
moral insight and good disposition. In the same year he 
also published his Standpoint for Judging Pestalozzi's Method 
of Instruction (Standfunkt der Beurtheilung der Pestalozzi- 
schen Unterrichtsmethode). Two years later appeared his 
chief educational work. General Pedagogics {Allgemeine 
Pddagogik), and later appeared Chief Points of Metaphysics, 
and Chief Points of Logic (Hauptpunhte der Metaphysik, 
and Hauptpunkte der Logik). 

In 1808 he published his General Practical Philosophy 
{Allgemeine praktische Philosophic). 

In 1809 Herbart was called to Konigsberg to occupy the 
chair formerly held by Kant. "How happy I was," he 
writes, " to receive the offer of this most renowned chair 
of philosophy, the place which, when a boy, I longed for in 
reverential dreams, as I studied the works of the sage of 

Herbart held that in education "theory and practice 
should go together " ; and in Konigsberg he was able to 


establish a "Seminar" and practice-school in connection 
with his lectures. He writes : " I had the lectures on 
education very much at heart. But education cannot be 
merely taught; it must be demonstrated and practised, I 
long ago conceived the idea of teaching a small number 
of selected boys myself, for an hour daily, in the presence 
of some young men acquainted with my pedagogy, who will 
attempt in my place and under my eye to carry on what 
I have begun. Gradually in this way teachers may be 
trained, whose methods must be perfected by mutual 
observation and exchange of experience. Since a plan 
of instruction is worthless without teachers, and moreover 
such teachers as are inspired by the spirit of the plan and 
skilled in the use of the method, perhaps a small experi- 
mental school such as I propose will be the best preparation 
for future and more extended movements." The little 
practice-school thus established continued to exist for 
nearly a quarter of a century. The actual teaching in the 
school was always done by five or six young men, who were 
studying philosophy and pedagogy in the University. The 
relations between Herbart and these young teachers were 
friendly and intimate. He directed and criticised their 
work, and every year each teacher was required to write 
a report of his educational experiences and observations. 

This little school was the first of its kind established in 
connection with theoretical lectures in a German university. 
The example Herbart set of combining practice with theory 
has been followed by several of his adherents in various 
German universities. 

Psychology occupied Herbart during his Konigsberg 
period. Pestalozzi, whose wonderful intuition and great 


heart inspired him in teaching, failed to express himself in 
exact words for the guidance of others less gifted than 
himself. Again, in Pestalozzi's day there was no psycho- 
logy upon which he could base his pedagogical system. 

It remained for Herbart to develop a psychology, and to 
apply it to the practical problems of teaching. Professor 
James Ward, of Cambridge, says : " For exactness and 
penetration of thought, Herbart is quite on a level with 
Hume and Kant. We are most indebted to him for the 
enormous advance psychology has been enabled to make.'' 

Among Herbart's psychological works are his System oj 
Psychology, and his Text-Book of Psychology, compiled from 
his lectures.r His chief psychological work, Psychology as a 
Science Founded upon Experience, Metaphysics and Mathe- 
matics, appeared in 1824-5.! 

Herbart returned to Gottingen in 1833, after twenty-four 
years of active work in Konigsberg. During his second 
period in Gottingen, he published one important educa- 
tional work. Outline of Pedagogical Lectures {Umriss pdda- 
gogischer Vorlesungen), but his time was chiefly occupied in 
preparing and giving lectures. 

He died in 1841. He is buried in Gottingen. The 
marble cross marking his grave bears the inscription : 

" To penetrate the sacred depths of Truth, 
To strive in joyful hope for human weal 

Was his life's aim ; 
Now his free spirit hath the perfect light, 
Here rests his mortal frame." ^ 

1 Science of Education (Herbart). Translated by Felkin. 


The Konigsberg "Seminar" was closed when 
o?HertttTwork!Herbart withdrew from the University, but 
the master's spirit lived, and still lives, among 
his disciples. 

The two early pioneers, who have carried Herbart's 
theories into practice in German schools, were Karl Stoy 
and Tuiskon Ziller. 

The Pedagogical " Seminar " of the University of Jena, 
under Dr. Rein, is the most active centre of Herbartian 
thought; at the present time, therefore, it may be in- 
teresting to trace its history. In 1836 Brzoska, one of 
Herbart's former teachers at Konigsberg, published a 
pamphlet in Jena entitled. The Necessity for a Peda- 
gogical " Seminar " in the University. (Die Nothivendigkeit 
pddagogischer Seminare auf der Universitdt.) This pam- 
phlet attracted considerable attention, but the death of 
the author arrested the further development of the move- 

Karl Stoy, who had studied and taught under Herbart 
at Konigsberg, and was full of enthusiasm for the further- 
ing of Herbart's educational principles, came to Jena as 
privat-docent in 1842. He had proved his ability as a 
practical teacher, having previously worked in Bender's 
Educational Institute at Weinheim. He formed an educa- 
tional society among his students, and revived the interest 
in the establishment of a Pedagogical "Seminar" which 
Brzoska's pamphlet had excited. Dr. Stoy was made 
professor of pedagogy at the University, and he established 
a " Seminar " and practice-school in connection with his 

During forty years, with the exception of some time 


spent in Heidelberg, Stoy continued his labours in Jena. 
His " Seminar " became a centre of pedagogical thought, 
and an inspiration to many who were afterwards famous 
for their educational work. 

Stoy wrote many pedagogical books ; School and Life 
(Schule und Leben), Home Pedagogy {Hauspddagogik), 
House and School Government (Haus und Schulpolizei), 
Organization of Training Colleges (Organization des Lehrer- 
seminars), and Home Geography and Language Teaching 
(Heimatskunde und Sprachuyiterricht). His chief work is 
his Encyclopedia of Pedagogics. 

Stoy seized and vigorously expounded Herbart's doc- 
trines, and he applied them chiefly to the work of primary 
schools, but he contributed little in the way of new ideas. 

He accepted Herbart's psychology and ethics as the 
foundation of his educational system. He believed that 
the idea of historical development served as a guide for 
the selection of humanistic studies, and he held that the 
theory of the formal steps was the rational method 01 
imparting knowledge, but he rejected the fairy tales and 
Robinson Crusoe, which other followers of Herbart con- 
sider to be the chief humanistic studies in the child's 
early years, and he refused to accept the scheme of con- 
centration worked out by Ziller and others. On the death 
of Stoy, in 1885, Dr. Wilhelm Rein was called to the chair 
of pedagogy at Jena. 

Tuiskon Ziller (181 7-1883), after having studied phil- 
ology at Leipsic, became a teacher in a secondary school 
at Meiningen. His experience as a teacher awakened in 
him a love for educational questions. He returned to 
Leipsic to quahfy as Privat-docent in law, but his natural 


inclinations led him, in 1856, to publish an essay, Intro- 
duction to General Pedagogy {Etnkitung in die allgemeine 

This was followed by a treatise on The Government of 
Children {Die Regierung der Kinder). 

This work called public attention to educational prob- 
lems, and, with the help of sympathetic supporters, he 
established a "Seminar" and practice-school in Leipsic, 
similar to that of Herbart in Konigsberg, and as professor 
of pedagogy directed the work of the students. Ziller's 
great work, Basis of the Doctrine of Instruction as a Moral 
Force {Grundlegung zur Lehre vom erziehenden Unterricht) 
was published in 1865. 

This book roused considerable interest in Herbart, and 
led to the formation of a society for the study of Scientific 
Pedagogy. This society later consisted of hundreds of 
members in various parts of Germany, who formed them- 
selves into local branches for the purpose of discussing 
educational questions from a Herbartian point of view. 

Ziller's later works were Lectures on General Pedagogy 
( Vorlesungen ilber allgemeine Pddagogik) and General Philo- 
sophical Ethics (Allgemeine philosophische Ethik). Ziller 
died in 1883, and the Pedagogical "Seminar" at Leipsic 
came to an end. 

Ziller was profoundly influenced by Herbart, and un- 
doubtedly his fundamental principles are entirely in accord 
with those of his master ; but he was a bold and original 
thinker, and he gave a free and independent interpretation 
to many of Herbart's ideas, which evoked the hostility of 
the more conservative of Herbart's adherents. Ziller s 
three questions are : — 


How is the subject-matter of the school studies to be 
selected ? 

How are the studies to be connected ? 

What is the true method of instruction? 

And the educational principles which underlie the solu- 
tion of these questions are purely Herbartian. Ziller be- 
lieved in the moral training of the child through instruction 
in the ordinary school subjects, and in the idea that the 
natural contents of the child's mind derived from his 
experience and intercourse and school instruction, furnish 
the only reliable guide to the selection and arrangement 
of his school studies, and in the necessity of developing 
in the child a permanent, far-reaching, and direct interest 
in the world and in humanity. 

The freedom which Ziller allowed himself in applying 
Herbart's principles to the selection of subject-matter, and 
his method of connecting the subjects of study, were re- 
garded with displeasure by the rigid followers of Herbart. 
Stoy wrote : " I have nothing to do with Ziller novelties. 
I look upon them as harmful exaggerations." 

A year after the death of Stoy Dr. Wilhelm Rein was 
called to the chair of pedagogy in Jena. Professor Rein 
had studied pedagogy under Stoy in Jena, and under Ziller 
in Leipsic ; afterwards he taught in Ziller's practice-school, 
and later he became Director of the Normal School at 
Eisenach. Under Dr. Rein's inspiring guidance interest 
in educational problems has been steadily increasing, and 
at the present time his Seminar in Jena is the most famous 
in Europe. 

Of the seven hundred students at the Jena University 
one-tenth are enrolled under Dr. Rein. These students 


are of all nationalities ; even Japan is occasionally repre- 

Prof. Rein is the real head of both the " Seminar " and 
practice-school, and there is a headmaster of the school 
who advises and criticises in the absence of the professor. 
Prof. Rein spends some time daily in the school, visiting 
the various classes and offering "suggestive and effective 
criticism" to the students. An American student thus 
describes his educational principles : " The 8 years' course 
of study used in the practice-school has been worked out 
in detail by Prof. Rein in accordance with his interpretation 
of the principles laid down by Herbart and developed 
by Ziller. The basis of this pedagogy is Herbart's ethics 
and psychology. Herbart's ethics, as presented by Pro- 
fessor Rein, is chiefly modern Christian socialism; in his 
lectures on psychology he presents a pedagogical appli- 
cation to the principles of psychology as developed by the 
followers of Herbart, Professor Wundt of Leipsic, and 
Professor Ziehen of Jena.'' 

The entire course of study is published in a set of eight 
volumes entitled. Theory and Practice of Instruction in the 
Primary School (the eight school years), {Theorie und 
Praxis des Volkschulunterrichtes — die acht Schuljahren). 
These books were written by Dr. Rein and two of his 
colleagues. The first volume contains, as an introduction. 
Dr. Rein's general pedagogical principles. 

The pedagogical " Seminar " is an organic part of the 
University, and receives an annual stipend from the State. 
The members of the "Seminar" may be of three 
kinds : — 

I. Merely visiting students who attend the lectures of 



the professor, and listen to any lessons they chose to hear 
in the practice-school. 

II. Special members, who are expected to attend lectures 
and school classes, and to take an active part in the criti- 
cism of lessons, arranging school excursions, writing reports, 

III. Ordinary members, who participate in the entire 
activity of the Seminary, and in addition undertake to 
teach a subject in the school, for not less than a term, 
under the direction of the class teacher. 

The three weekly meetings, which must be attended by 
all members of the "Seminar," are the Theoretikum 
Pratikum, and Conference. 

The first is a meeting conducted by the professor, de- 
voted to the discussion of special educational questions 
which have arisen in the school during the week. 

The Pratikum is a specimen lesson given by a student 
as a typical illustration of his method, in the presence of his 
fellow-students, the teachers of the school, and the professor. 

The Conference is a meeting held under the direction of 
the professor to discuss and criticise the student's lesson. 
The student is allowed to criticise himself first, after which 
an appointed critic gives a thorough criticism of the lesson ; 
then disputed points are discussed. The American student 
before quoted, in describing one of these Conferences, 
writes : " After the questions have been argued an hour or 
more under Professor Rein's constant direction, he sum- 
marizes the results, often adds points which have been 
overlooked, and, along with candid and wholesome advice 
to the student under criticism, he passes his generally very 
just verdict upon the lesson. Criticism is Professor Rein's 


strong point. Faults do not escape him, and he suggests 
their causes and remedies. The system of pedagogy he 
has studied and developed during twenty years of school 
work is his guide in solving questions of theory, and the 
ideal teacher he has in mind is the criterion he applies to 
practice. Those students who go through the whole ordeal 
of the Seminar find it sufficiently terrible ; never is it a 
joke, though at times it has its humour." 

When the serious business of the Conference is over, 
the evening ends in a truly German fashion with toasts and 
songs. My friend goes on to describe a student's toast to 
Dr. Rein. "He responds with a short, happy speech, 
which elicits cheer after cheer, until a word, directing 
thought to the earnestness of the life of a teacher, hushes 
his hearers into that silence which reigns when the inner- 
most soul pays homage to the power touching it. Depart- 
ing, he bids the assembly 'good-night,' to which the 
students respond by respectfully rising. There is not one 
of them who has not profited by the professor's concrete 
example as a critic. He operates with such expertness, 
giving his convincing reason for every slash of his knife, 
as he cuts away false practice, that the patient quite forgets 
the pain of the incisions, while gratefully anticipating the 
assured relief. The professor is a sincere man, who loves 
an honest word more than gold, who goes far out of his 
way to show others their path. He has the genius of 
being a simple man." 

Dr. Rein has written a large number of educational 

His Outlines of Pedagogics {Pddagogik im Grundriss), 
of which there is an English translation, contains a sketch 
of his educational principles. 



His Encyclopedia of Pedagogy {Encyc/opadisches Handbuch 
der Fcidagogik), an extremely valuable work to the student 
of education. 

Herbartian thought has considerably influenced the 
teaching in the schools of Middle Germany. In Eisenach 
there is an excellent school and training college conducted 
on Herbartian lines by Direktor Ackermann. I spent some 
weeks in this school two years ago. There were 241 pupils 
in the school and 31 students in the training college. The 
school has nine classes; in the ninth are little girls of six years 
of age, and in the first are girls of fifteen and sixteen years. 

I append the subjects studied and the number of hours 
devoted to them in each class : — 

















































2| 2 




















































































































-1 - 









• The Heimatkunde is home geography, a knowledge of the child's 


At Altenburg there is a thoroughly Herbartian High 
School for Girls directed by Dr. Karl Juste. There is 
also a large mixed primary school of one thousand chil- 
dren which is entirely Herbartian in character. Rektor 
Ufer is the director of this school. He is the author of an 
illuminating little work Introduction to Herbart ( Vorschule 
der Paddgogik Herbarts). Some of the finest Scripture and 
history lessons I have ever heard were given by Rektor 
Ufer and Dr. Juste in the Altenburg schools. In Weimar, 
Gotha, Karlsruhe, and other parts of Germany, and in 
Chur in Switzerland, there are Herbartian training colleges. 
The Frankische Stiftung at Halle is profoundly in- 
fluenced by Herbartian thought. Dr. Frick, the former 
Direktor, applied the Herbartian principles to secondary 
education in the various schools under his control. An 
interesting example of a country Herbartian school is the 
one in Blankenhaira under Rektor Scholz, author of The 
School Journey as an Organized Fart of Instruction {Die 
Schulreise als organisches died im Plane der Erziehungs- 


I append a Bibliography of some of the books bearing 
upon Herbartian principles : — 
Ackermann : Padagogische Fragen. 
Dorpfeld : Denken und Gedachtnis. 
Juste, Karl : Ueber die Form des Unterrichts. 

J, „ Ueber Konzentration. 
*Lange : Ueber Apperzeption. 
Lazarus : Das Leben der Seele. 
Nahlowsky : Das Gefiihlsleben. 
*Preyer : Die Seele des Kindes. 
Rein : Encyclopadisches Handbuch der Padagoglk. 

„ Gesinnungsunterricht und Kulturgeschichte. 

„ Herbarts Regierung, Zucht und Unterricht. 
* „ Padagogik im Grundriss. 

„ Pickel, and Scheller : Theorie und Praxis des Volks- 
Reich : Die Theorie der Formalstufen. 
Stoy : Encyclopadie, Methodologie und Literatur der Pada- 

„ Organisation des Lehrseminars. 

„ Psychologie in gedrangter Darstellung. 
Striimpel : Das System der Padagogik Herbarts. 

„ Grundriss der Psychologie. 

Thrandorf : Konzentration oder konzentrische Methode. 
Ufer : Vorschule der Padagogik Herbarts. 
*Wiget : Die formalen Stufen des Unterrichts. 
Wundt : Grundziige der physiologischen Psychologie. 
*Ziehen : Leitfaden der physiologischen Psychologie. 
Ziller : Allgemeine philosophische Ethik. 

„ Die Regierung der Kinder. 

• Of these books English translations exist. See next page. 



Ziller : Grundlegung zur Lehre vom erziehenden Unterricht. 
„ Vorlesungen iiber allgemeine Padagogik. 

The following are some of the chief English Books and 

Translations of German works bearing on Herbart : — 

Adams : The Herbartian Psychology Applied to Education. 

De Garmo : The Essentials of Method. 
„ „ Herbart and the Herbartians. 

Lange : Apperception. Translated by the Herbart Club, 
Boston. Edited by De Garmo. 

Ufer: Pedagogy of Herbart. Translation edited by De 

Herbart : The Science of Education. Translated by Felkin. 
„ Letters and Lectures on Education. Translated 

by Felkin. 
„ The Application of Psychology to Education. 
Translated by B. C. Mulliner. 

Felkin : Introduction to Herbart's Science of Education. 

McMurry, C. Elements of General Method. 
„ The Method of Recitation. 

Ribot : German Psychology of To-day. 

Rein : Outlines of Pedagogics. Translated by Van Liew. 

Ziehen : Introduction to Physiological Psychology. Trans- 
lated by Van Liew and Beyer. 

Ward : Article Psychology in Encyclopsedia Britannica, 9th 

Special Reports on Educational Subjects issued by the 
Education Department, 1896-7, containing details of 
teaching some subjects in Herbartian schools. 

Bjtler & Tanner, The Selwood Printing Works, Frome, and London.